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, and minimize the development of resistance to antibiotics [ 2 ]. The fixed-dose combination of paracetamol (PCM) and caffeine (CF) is primarily employed in conditions such as a migraine headache [ 4 ], which is a chronic and common disorder

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duration of Internet use ( Secades-Villa et al., 2014 ); excessive gamers are often excessive caffeine users ( Porter, Starcevic, Berle, & Fenech, 2010 ). These studies typically measure any use of the substance within certain period of time or during the

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, A. J. ( 2006 ). Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, and Parkinson’s disease . Journal ofNeurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry , 77 ( 3 ), 317 – 321

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.: Caffeine use in children: What we know, what we have left to learn, and why we should worry. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 2009, 33 (6), 793–806. 5 Vida, K., Rácz, J

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Summary

A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and quantification of cephalosporins (cefpirome, cefaclor, ceftazidime, and cephradine) in pharmaceutical formulations. Separation was achieved in the presence of caffeine as internal standard on a Mediterranea C18 (5 μm, 25 × 0.46 mm) column. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and water (30:70), which was pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. Effluents were monitored at 265 nm. The assay was linear in the concentration range of 0.5–50 μg mL−1, with the correlation coefficient (r 2) greater than 0.9998. The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV %) were less than 4% at different concentrations.

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Summary

A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and quantification of fusidic acid and steroids (prednisone, betamethasone valerate, hydrocortisone acetate, and dexamethasone sodium) from bulk drugs and human plasma. A RP-HPLC, operated at ambient temperature, was equipped with a UV detector for monitoring the effluents at 235 nm. The mobile phase consisted of methanol, acetonitrile, and 0.05 M phosphoric acid (10:60:30, v/v/v), and separation was achieved on a Medeterrane, C18 (5 μm, 12.5 × 0.46 mm) column at a flow rate of 1.7 mL min−1. Calibration curves were linear over concentration range 0.625–10 μg mL−1 with correlation coefficient (r 2) greater than 0.9999. The coefficient of variation (CV) and relative error (RE) for intra- and interassay were <2% and <1%, respectively. Interference of other already administered common medicaments, such as aspirin, paracetamol, caffeine, nicotine, and other plasma components, were not found.

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A spontán intracranialis hypotensio diagnosztikája mágneses rezonanciás képalkotással

Evaluation and diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with magnetic resonance imaging

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Máté Magyar, Nóra Luca Nyilas, Dániel Bereczki, György Bozsik, Gábor Rudas, Csaba Ertsey, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, and Péter Barsi

Összefoglaló. A klasszikus esetben ortosztatikus fejfájást okozó, spontán intracranialis hypotensiót az esetek túlnyomó többségében a gerinccsatornában, annak nyaki-háti átmenetében, illetve a háti szakaszán található liquorszivárgás okozza. Meglévő kötőszöveti betegség, degeneratív gerincbetegségek, illetve kisebb traumák szerepet játszhatnak a szivárgás kialakulásában. Az ortosztatikus fejfájás létrejöttében szerepet játszhat a meningealis szerkezetek, érzőidegek és hídvénák vongálódása. A klasszikus pozicionális, ortosztatikus fejfájásban szenvedő betegek körében gondolni kell a spontán intracranialis hypotensio lehetőségére, és az agykoponya, illetve a gerinc kontrasztanyaggal végzett mágneses rezonanciás vizsgálata (MRI) javasolt. A kontrasztanyaggal végzett koponya-MRI-vel klasszikus esetben diffúz, nem nodularis, intenzív, vaskos pachymeningealis kontrasztanyag-halmozás, kitágult vénássinus-rendszer, subduralis effusiók és az agytörzs caudalis diszlokációja („slumping”) látható. Fontos azonban szem előtt tartani, hogy az esetek 20%-ában ezen eltérések nem detektálhatók. Jó minőségű, randomizált, kontrollált vizsgálatok nem történtek, a kezelés hagyományokon alapul. Kezdetben általában konzervatív terápiát alkalmaznak (ágynyugalom, koffein- és folyadékbevitel), ennek hatástalansága esetén epiduralis sajátvér-injekció, epiduralis fibrinragasztó-injektálás, illetve sebészi terápia jöhet szóba. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(7): 246–251.

Summary. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension, the classic feature of which is orthostatic headache, is most commonly caused by a cerebrospinal fluid leakage at the level of the spinal canal, in most cases at the thoracic level or cervicothoracic junction. Underlying connective tissue disorders, minor trauma, degenerative spinal diseases may play a role in the development of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Traction on pain-sensitive intracranial and meningeal structures, particularly sensory nerves and bridging veins, may play a role in the development of orthostatic headache. In the case of patients with classic orthostatic headache, the possibility of spontaneous intracranial hypotension should be considered, and if suspected, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium and additional spine MRI are recommended. Diffuse, non-nodular, intense, thick dural enhancement, subdural effusions, engorgement of cerebral venous sinuses, sagging of the brain are typical features on brain MRI, which, however, remain normal in up to 20 percent of patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Unfortunately, no randomized clinical trials have evaluated the effectiveness of the various treatment strategies and no definitive treatment protocols have been established. In clinical practice, the first-line treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension is conservative (bed rest, caffeine and fluid intake). If conservative therapy is not effective, epidural blood patch, epidural fibrin glue, or surgical repair should be considered. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(7): 246–251.

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Corrao, G., Zambon, A., Bagnardi, V., et al.: Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Ann. Epidemiol., 2011, 11 , 458–465. Bagnardi V. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of

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Snacks Gambling Brochures Caffeine Smoking Social networking Soft drink

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process has been used to develop and validate quantitative methods for amitriptyline HCl [ 2 ]; acyclovir [ 7 ]; naproxen sodium, loperamide HCl, and loratidine [ 12 ]; caffeine, fluoxetine HCl, and gabapentin [ 14 ]; and desloratadine, etodolac

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