The global automotive industry has been exposed to an overproduction crisis for several decades. Under the pressure of restructuring, automotive companies renew both the geographical scope and the technological standardization of their production processes. We analyze the effects this restructuring had on the development of European economies in order to understand whether vertical specializations in the automotive value chain can lead to Central and Eastern European countries’ catching up to advanced economies, or whether such specializations reproduce new forms of core-periphery relations. In order to answer this question, we introduce a new methodological approach to understand vertical specialization in the global value chain from a semi-peripheral perspective. We combine the theory of global value chains with Vernon's product life-cycle theory. In the research we focus on the standardization of the production of electric engines behind the geographical relocation of production between core and periphery.
The euro crisis and its lessons are still not a closed chapter for economists and policy makers. The challenge to find the most appropriate ways to prevent intra-area imbalances is still on the top of the agenda. Nominal adjustment (internal devaluation) remains one of the most critical aspects of this debate. Many are indeed interested in whether austerity measures in several countries “made sense.” But much more is at stake here than evaluating the past. The true question is whether the eurozone can rely on nominal adjustment to align internal economic fluctuations. This paper contributes to the answer by investigating the size of price changes and their impacts on output and trade in the wake of the euro crisis. Selecting the most appropriate variables to measure competitive outcomes, the basic idea of “expansionary contraction” is tested. We rely on a comprehensive panel of all Eurozone member states in the post-crisis years (2010–2017). The results suggest that flexible price levels cannot be taken for granted, and a link to competitiveness is not self-evident, either. Other channels of adjustment may prove to be more important, but scaling them up will ultimately require a sound consensus on the future architecture of the euro.
Authors:Tamás Zsom, Viktória Zsom-Muha, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Dávid Nagy, Géza Hitka, Petra Polgári, and László Baranyai
), significant increase in a* ( F = 15.106) and decrease in hue angle (data not shown in figures) values ( F = 10.578) were observed as normal postharvest ripening in the case of the at 10 °C (control) stored samples compared to the results of CI inducing
Authors:Mohammad-Reza Yousefi and Hossein TaheriChadorneshin
significant difference in body weight ( F = 7.68, P = 0.001), glucose ( F = 69.55, P = 0.001), insulin ( F = 15.29, P = 0.001), insulin resistance ( F = 10.92, P = 0.001), and RBP4 ( F = 9.67, P = 0.001) in the end of exercise training protocol
Authors:Nerilee Hing, Alex M. T. Russell, En Li, and Peter Vitartas
2 for the overall model was .11, [ F (15, 1792) = 15.40, p < .001]. The following predictors were statistically significant when controlling for all other variables in the model: being female, being