. This is surprising for two reasons. First, lifelong learning in developed economies is currently being given an unprecedented amount of consideration ( Billett, 2018 ); second, second-language (L2) autonomy research seems to have neglected its origins
Authors:Sally M. Gainsbury, Daniel L. King, Alex M. T. Russell, and Paul Delfabbro
Background and aims
Social casino games (SCGs) feature gambling themes and are typically free to download and play with optional in-game purchases. Although few players spend money, this is sufficient to make them profitable for game developers. Little is known about the profile and motivations of paying players as compared to non-paying players.
This study compared the characteristics of 521 paying and non-paying Australian social casino game players who completed an online survey.
Paying players were more likely to be younger, male, speak a non-English language, and have a university education than non-payers. Paying players were more likely to be more highly involved in SCG in terms of play frequency and engagement with games and emphasized social interaction more strongly as a motivation for playing. A cluster analysis revealed distinct subgroups of paying players; these included more frequent moderate spenders who made purchases to avoid waiting for credits and to give gifts to friends as well as less frequent high spenders who made purchases to increase the entertainment value of the game.
These findings suggest that paying players have some fundamental differences from non-paying players and high spenders are trying to maximize their enjoyment, while non-spenders are content with the game content they access.
Given the structural similarities between SCG and online gambling, understanding subgroups of players may have broader implications, including identifying characteristics of gamers who may also engage in gambling and players who may develop problems related to excessive online gaming.
Authors:Barbara Barszcz, Joanna Masternak, Maciej Hodorowicz, and Agnieszka Jabłońska-Wawrzycka
Ptasiewicz-Bąk with coworkers [ 4 ], respectively. Liu [ 3 ] synthesized [Cd(L2 ) 2 ] n in a hydrothermal method using cadmium(II) nitrate, pyrazine-2-carboxylate, NaOH, and water (20% yield). Complex 3 was isolated from the reaction of pyrazine-2
Authors:András Bánvölgyi, Eszter Balla, Péter Bognár, Béla Tóth, Eszter Ostorházi, Dénes Bánhegyi, Sarolta Kárpáti, and Márta Marschalkó
serovar l2 proctitis in The Netherlands among men who have sex with men. Clin. Infect. Dis., 2004, 39 (7), 996–1003.
Ward, H., Martin, I., Macdonald, N., et al.: Lymphogranuloma venereum in the United Kingdom. Clin
me to explore the teacher’s role in generating and maintaining the motivation of adult learners of English in a corporate environment. This article, therefore, addresses this neglected area of L2 motivation research by presenting the results of an
Authors:Károly Bibok, Julia Coryell, and Saihua Xia
Book reviews of the following works: Istvan Kecskes: Situation-bound utterances in L1 and L2 (Studies on language acquisition, vol. 19). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin & New York, 2003; Enikő Németh T. and Károly Bibok (eds): Pragmatics and the flexibility of word meaning} (Current research in the semantics\per pragmatics interface, vol. 8). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2001.
The study reported in the paper investigates the structure of L2 self-corrections in the speech of 30 Hungarian learners of English and 10 Hungarian native speakers. The aim of the research is to examine what the well-formedness of the corrections, the use of editing terms, the placement of cut-off points and the effect of the participants' level of proficiency on the structure of self-repairs reveal about the psycholinguistic processes of speech production. The results of the study lend additional support for modular models of speech production (e.g., Levelt 1983, 1989; Levelt et al. 1999) and reveal an important role of pragmatic constraints in psycholinguistic processing.
The paper explores the nature of cross-linguistic influence in morphology. 30 Estonian (a closely related L1) and 30 Russian (a non-related L1) beginning and advanced learners of L2 Finnish were tested for their skills in nominal inflection in three different tasks: separate nouns of morphophonologically varying inflectional categories to be inflected in several plural case forms in writing, the same nouns to be used in a narrative writing task and in an oral inflection task. The nouns were selected to represent various degrees of inflectional and/or semantic similarity between Finnish and Estonian (for Russian no such similarity exists). The results indicate that—in opposition to what has been previously claimed—not only does cross-linguistic influence exist within the domain of morphology but it also varies systematically across inflectional categories and between groups at different levels of general skills in Finnish.