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Abstract

This study examines the role of Magyar Suzuki in the Hungarian automotive industry. It is the oldest foreign vehicle manufacturer and a symbol of modernisation in the post-communist era in Hungary. Due to EU's local content rule, Magyar Suzuki, in comparison with its counterparts in the region, has established a locally embedded supply chain network. Magyar Suzuki has facilitated process and product upgrading of the local suppliers in Hungary. Nevertheless, functional upgrading is relatively limited due to automotive multinational corporations' recognition of Hungary as a low-cost production location, a low level of R&D operation, and a small domestic market.

Open access

Abstract

Households supply the workforce for the modern economy, increasingly based on information and communication technology (IT). The access of households to e-devices and e-channels has been continuously growing in the last two decades. The aim of the study is to reflect these theoretical concepts with data-based, econometric causality analysis. Specifically, this study investigates whether the digitalization of households is a factor in their macroeconomic and behavioural indicators. In other words, does households' access to digital devices and channels determine rates of employment, productivity (TFP), level of savings, disposable income, per capita GDP or the growth ratio of GDP, and even such institutional indicators as political stability? The methodology employed is panel Granger causality analysis and Dumitrescu-Hurlin test, and the regional scope is the EU. Causality is tested between the households' digitalization and their macroeconomic, consumer behaviour or institutional indicators using panel Granger causality tests.

Open access

.83 0.57 0.56 35.98 36.47 0.220 0.211 B 6 O 14 T′ 9 D 124 D 31 vi M′ 17 14

Open access

), 327.0550 (58), 311.0596 (59), 285.0442 (27) Luteolin-8- C -rhamnosyl-4′- O -glucoside 4 18.53 c 26 h 28 o 14 563.1406 563.1390 (100) 2.89 35 473.1109 (47), 401.0837 (69), 341.0642 (31), 311.0546 (97), 297.0407 (83) Apigenin-6- C -arabinosyl-7- O

Open access

+Na] + Flavonoids 10 Liquiritigenin C 15 H 12 O 4 FURUXTVZLHCCNA-AWEZNQCLSA-N 5.96 257.0808213 257.081 [M+H] + Flavonoids 11 Licochalcone B C 16 H 14 O 5 DRDRYGIIYOPBBZ-XBXARRHUSA-N 6.21 287.0911089 287.091 [M+H] + Chalcones 12 Pseudoginsenoside F11 C 42 H 72 O 14

Open access

−Glc+H] + ; 435.11 [M−Glc−Rha+H] + ; 273.05 [M−2Glc−Rha+H] + C 33 H 42 O 19 Naringin 4′-glucoside 7 28.24 226, 282 603.10 [M+Na] + 435.11 [M−Rha+H] + ; 273.06 [M−Glc−Rha+H] + C 27 H 32 O 14 Narirutin 8 a 29.89 227, 282 603.10 [M+Na] + 435.11 [M−Rha+H] + ; 273

Open access

.4691(17) S11–O11 1.4722(19) S11–O14 1.4756(19) S11–O12

Open access

59 16.040 [M − H]−1 578.16356 2.46 577.15778,431.10046,285.04150,283.02557 C27 H30 O14 kaempferitrin 60 16.054 [M − H]−1 448.10056 3.66 447.09500,285.04147,284.03372,151.00412 C21 H20 O11 Cynaroside 61 16.066 [M − H]−1 464.09548 3.81 463

Open access

C 25 H 32 O 14 555, 403, 393 Hydroxyoleuropein Secoiridoids

Open access