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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Sandy Pacheco-Vega, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Diana Saldaña-Simental, Luis Sánchez-Anguiano, Misael Salcedo-Jáquez, Agar Ramos-Nevárez, Oliver Liesenfeld, José Márquez-Conde, Sandra Cerrillo-Soto, Lucio Martínez-Ramírez, and Carlos Guido-Arreola

2004 363 1965 1976 Dubey JP (2010): Toxoplasmosis of animals and humans, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida

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. Benthall , J. , ‘ Animal Liberation and Rights ’ ( 2007 ) 23-2 Anthropology Today 1 – 3 . Bocharov , E.V. , Criminal Liability for Cruelty to Animals (Candidate

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Sockalingam, S., Li, M., Krishnadev, U., et al.: Use of animal-assisted therapy in the rehabilitation of an assault victim with a concurrent mood disorder. Issues Ment. Health Nurs., 2008, 29 (1), 73

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small animal clinics is a pivotal step in managing veterinary HAIs ( Mount et al., 2016 ). Numerous international studies have investigated the prevalence of bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility in veterinary clinics. During a five-year survey

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( 1963 ): Germfree life and gnotobiology . Academic Press–New York. pp. 1 – 497 8. Al-Asmakh M , Zadjali F : Use of germ-free animal models in

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Aida Begic, Ana Djuric, Borko Gobeljic, Ivana Stevanovic, Vera Lukic, Ivan Stanojevic, Milica Ninkovic, Luciano Saso, Danilo Vojvodic, and Mirjana Djukic

The aim of our work was to optimize and apply simple high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection (HPLC—UV) for simultaneous determination of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in biological matrix (specifically, the rat liver tissue was used herein), since the ratio between oxidized and reduced glutathione forms (GSSG—GSH) has been recognized as an important biological marker of oxidatively depleted GSH in oxidative stress (OS)-associated diseases and poisonings. An isocratic chromatographic separation of GSH and GSSG (2.8 min and 6.3 min, respectively) was performed with the mobile phase consisted of sodium perchlorate solution (pH adjusted to 2.8) at flow rate of 1 mL min−1, detection set at 215 nm, and column temperature of 40 °C. The method offers short run time, linearity in the range of 0.01—200 μM concentration for both compounds (R 2 = 1), low limits of detection and quantification (GSH: 0.18 μM and 0.56 μM, GSSG: 0.52 μM and 1.58 μM, respectively), precision, accuracy (bias < 2%), and high reproducibility.

Through suitable sample handling, an overestimation of GSSG was prevented. High recovery (>99%) was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of GSH and GSSG in liver homogenates of Wistar rats intraperitoneally exposed to cadmium (Cd) (1 mg kg−1 CdCl2/21 days). Regardless of other Cd-mediated hepatotoxicity mechanisms, herein, we have exclusively interpreted/emphasized oxidative GSH depletion.

The presented method is acceptable for a routine analysis of GSH and GSSG in biological matrix, while the calculated ratio GSSG—GSH is considered as a valuable OS marker.

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. Blaum , N. , E. Mosner , M. Schwager and F. Jeltsch . 2011 . How functional is functional? Ecological groupings in terrestrial animal ecology: towards an animal functional type approach . Biodiv. Cons. 20 : 2333 – 2345

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1 Introduction Antibiotics are used regularly for the treatment of diseases in animals. Additionally, they are applied to animals for enhancing feed efficiency and growth rate ( Greenless et al., 2012 ). Residues can occur in the edible tissues of

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the “European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes” (Strasbourg, 1986) and the “General Ethical Principles of Animal Experimentation” (Kyiv, 2001). The animals were divided into

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Imre Nemes, Tamás Molnár, Tamás Abonyi, Zsolt Terjék, Ádám Bálint, and István Szabó

References Anonymous ( 1997 ): Decree No. 41/1997 (V. 28.) of the Minister of Agriculture on issuing the Animal Health Regulation [in Hungarian

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