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studies as well as animal and genetic research, neurochemical models of OCD have focused on three candidate neurotransmitter systems – serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate ( Graat, Figee, & Denys, 2017 ). However, inconsistent responses to single monoamine

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Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research

Can the emerging domain of behavioral addictions bring a new reflection for the field of addictions, by stressing the issue of the context of addiction development?

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Philippe de Timary and Pierre Philippot

Background

This paper is a commentary to the article entitled: “Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research”, by Billieux, Schimmenti, Khazaal, Maurage and Heeren (2015).

Methods and Aims

In this manuscript, we commented on two aspects developed by the authors. Billieux et al. (2015) propose that the recent development of propositions of behavioral addiction is driven by an unwise application of an addiction model to excessive behaviors and rests on a confirmatory research strategy that does not question the psychological processes underlying the development of the conduct. They also show that applying a process driven strategy leads to a more appropriate description of the reality of the behavior and conduct, in particular by describing a variety of motivations for the excessive behavior, which is central to understanding the nature of the conduct. We believe that this new approach, which is fruitful to the emerging domain of behavioral addictions, could also apply to the domain of addictions in general. The latter is characterized by the application of a generic biological model, largely influenced by animal models, focusing on neurophysiological determinants of addiction. This approach may have decreased the attention paid to dimensions of addictions that are more specifically human. We will firstly briefly argue on the limitation of this neurophysiological addiction model for the field of excessive behavioral conducts. Secondly, we will argue for an approach centered on the differentiation of motivations and on the adaptive dimension of the behavior when it first developed and on the evocation of a transition where the conduct became independent of its original function.

Conclusions

The emerging domain of behavioral addictions, where no animal model has been developed so far, may bring a new reflection that may apply to the domain of addictions in general, with a specific attention to human questions.

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, 1613 – 1642 . Cheney , D. L. , & Seyfarth , R. M. ( 1982 ). How vervet monkeys perceive their grunts: Field playback experiments . Animal Behaviour , 30 , 739 – 751 . Custers , R. , & Aarts , H. ( 2010 ). The unconscious will: How the

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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors: Andrew Watt, Deiniol Skillicorn, Jediah Clark, Rachel Evans, Paul Hewlett, and Nick Perham

of conditional discriminative performance . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes , 15 , 154 – 165 . Honey , R. C. , & Watt , A. ( 1998 ). Acquired relational equivalence: Implications for the nature of associative

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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors: Glenn Geher, Scott Barry Kaufman, Justin R. Garcia, James C. Kaufman, and Blair Bryant Dawson

. SUNY New Paltz Master’s Thesis. Clutton-Brock, T. ( 2009 ). Sexual selection in females . Animal Behaviour , 77 , 3 – 11 . Cotar , C. , McNamara , J. M. , Collins , E. , & Houston , A. I. ( 2008 ). Should females prefer to mate with

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, coordination costs, and knowledge . The Quarterly Journal of Economics , 107 , 1137 – 1160 . Beltran-Bech , S. , & Richard , F. J. ( 2014 ). Impact of infection on mate choice . Animal Behaviour , 90 , 159 – 170 . Blackmore , S. ( 2010

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Introduction Sleep spindles are the hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in humans and animals (reviewed in De Gennaro and Ferrara, 2003 ; De Gennaro et al., 2005 ). The name “spindle” refers to its characteristic

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Xinqi Zhou, Renjing Wu, Congcong Liu, Juan Kou, Yuanshu Chen, Halley M. Pontes, Dezhong Yao, Keith M. Kendrick, Benjamin Becker, and Christian Montag

substance-based addictions. Converging evidence from animal and human studies indicates that the transition from volitional to addictive and compulsive substance use is accompanied by progressive dysregulations in the motivational circuits of the brain. The

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contaminated our water sources we will not only become ill but the animals and plants will also become ill. Another aspect of Diné culture is as human beings we cannot separate our physical, spiritual, mental, emotional bodies, and our environment from one

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with similar identities. Cultural Pride Experiences Recurrently, during the dosing session, I would encounter a tapir – an endangered animal native to the jungles of Southeast Asia and the forests of South

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