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Introduction: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are important causes of severe diseases like blood stream infections. This study comparatively assessed potential differences in their impact on disease severity in local and systemic infections.

Methods: Over a 5-year interval, patients in whom either E. coli or S. aureus was detected in superficial or primary sterile compartments were assessed for the primary endpoint death during hospital stay and the secondary endpoints duration of hospital stay and infectious disease as the main diagnosis.

Results: Significance was achieved for the impacts as follows: Superficial infection with S. aureus was associated with an odds ratio of 0.27 regarding the risk of death and of 1.42 regarding infectious disease as main diagnosis. Superficial infection with E. coli was associated with a reduced duration of hospital stay by −2.46 days and a reduced odds ratio of infectious diseases as main diagnosis of 0.04. The hospital stay of patients with E. coli was increased due to third-generation cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin resistance, and in the case of patients with S. aureus due to tetracycline and fusidic acid resistance.

Conclusions: Reduced disease severity of superficial infections due to both E. coli and S. aureus and resistance-driven prolonged stays in hospital were confirmed, while other outcome parameters were comparable.

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Introduction Discovered in 1984, the gastric bacterium Helicobacter pylori has long been known as one of the most successful human pathogens that has infected approximately half of the global population [ 1 ]. Although most

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: E. Sapi, K. Gupta, K. Wawrzeniak, G. Gaur, J. Torres, K. Filush, A. Melillo and B. Zelger

respiratory pathogen whose infection leads to extra-pulmonary symptoms such as myocarditis, atherosclerosis, reactive arthritis, and nervous system disorders [ 58 , 59 ]. Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterium responsible for causing sexually transmitted

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy and Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna

Background

While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients.

Objectives

To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children.

Methods

Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study. Etiological agents were identified using conventional bacteriological identification methods and IgM antibodies detection against common atypical respiratory bacteria and viruses.

Results

An etiology was identified in 59 patients (65.5%). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 43 (47.8%) of the cases while viral pathogens were detected in 23 (25.5%). Coinfection with more than one etiologic agent was evident in seven patients (7.8%). The most common typical bacterial cause of pneumonia was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 12, 13.3%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7, 7.8%, each). The commonest atypical bacterium was Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 10, 11.1%), whereas the commonest viral etiology was influenza viruses (n = 11, 12.2%).

Conclusion

Although we could not determine the causative agent in some studied cases, this study provides preliminary data regarding the spectrum and frequency of microorganisms causing CAP in Egyptian infants and preschool children.

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Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role.

Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide.

We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III.

Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals.

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References 1. Brenner DJ , Steigerwalt AG , McDade JE : Classification of the Legionnaires’ disease bacterium: Legionella

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. Silipo A , Sturiale L , Perino V , Garozzo D , Lanzetta R , Parrilli M , et al: The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide from the halophilic bacterium Arcobacter halophilus . Carbohydr

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Markus M. Heimesaat, Gül Karadas, André Fischer, Ulf B. Göbel, Thomas Alter, Stefan Bereswill and Greta Gölz

. Silipo A , Sturiale L , Perino V , Garozzo D , Lanzetta R , Parrilli M , et al.: The structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipooligosaccharide from the halophilic bacterium Arcobacter halophilus . Carbohydr

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prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn’s disease patients . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 , 16731 – 16736 ( 2008 ) 32

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Nadia Velázquez-Hernández, Fernando Martín Guerra-Infante, Marisela Aguilar-Durán, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, José Antonio Navarrete-Flores, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco and Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis ( C. trachomatis ) is a ubiquitous, obligate, intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen [ 1 ]. Humans are the only natural host of C. trachomatis [ 2 ]. This bacterium

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