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distributivity in pluralities . In A. K. Biller , E. Y. Chung and A. E. Kimball (eds.) Proceedings of the 36th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (BUCLD) . Somerville, MA : Cascadilla Press . 387 – 399 . Schlottmann

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. C ., and Koh , K. M . On the length of the lattice of sublattices of a finite distributive lattice . Algebra Universalis 15 , 2 ( 1982 ), 233 – 241 . [6] Chen , C. C ., Koh , K. M ., and Teo , K. L . On the sublattice-lattice of a

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Across languages, the morpheme expressing conjunction frequently has other uses as well. Several linguists have attempted to unify all uses of conjunction morphemes under one general algebraic scheme. We argue in favor of a more limited unification and propose a universal decomposition of conjunction structures: We propose that there exist both a “nominal” e-type and “verbal” or “clausal” t-type junctor. Our account is substantiated with evidence from synchronic typology and diachrony. Our analysis hinges on a generalisation, that e-conjunctors, but crucially not t-conjunctors, may have non-conjunctional quantificational meanings. Historically, we invoke the same principle to explain the change in the conjunction grammar of Indo-European which uniformly abandoned the e- and adopted the t-level conjunctions across the board.

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A semantics for various classes of Czech numerals is presented which is based on Landman’s theory but also incorporates Chierchia’s Neo-Carlsonian approach to kinds. On the basis of a wide range of empirical data it is argued that Czech overtly lexicalizes at least two covert “sort-shifting” operators that have been stipulated in order to derive certain fine-grained semantic effects.

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REFERENCES [1] Balbes , R ., and Dwinger , P . Distributive Lattices . University of Missouri Press , Columbia, Missouri , 1974 . [2] Bergman , C . Amalgamation classes of some distributive varieties . Algebra Universalis 20 ( 1985

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Acta Linguistica Academica
Authors:
Alexis Wellwood
,
Susan J. Hespos
, and
Lance Rips

: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Champollion , Lucas and Manfred Krifka . 2016 . Mereology . In M. Aloni and P. Dekker (eds.) The Cambridge handbook of formal semantics . Cambridge

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Property reparation programs undertaken in Central and Eastern Europe after the fall of the communist regimes fail to fulfill ‘the promises of the rule of law’. Reparation schemes do not have an exclusively reparative nature, moreover, reparation was deliberately linked with structural reform, and due to this duality, the scheme features a mixed distributive-reparative character. This resulted in two troublesome aspects: on one hand, there is no evidence of a compelling argument, which justifies the mitigation of past property deprivations at large. On the other hand, it can not be satisfactorily demonstrated why property-related injustices enjoy a privileged status when it comes to reparations, in comparison to other types of losses. Further, bearing in mind the Hayekian objection towards distributive justice, even those who had been placed in an equal situation—i.e. all suffered past property injustices—are not offered an objectively equal opportunity to claim redress. Due to the fact that the schemes addressed reparations—at least in part—from a distributive perspective (which resulted in an attempt to create a substantive equality between victims), the result that they achieved was objective inequality, as everyone was entitled to reparation between the same limitations, while everyone suffered losses of different extent. These differences in treatment between various former owners are mostly arbitrary, and in certain cases deliberately introduced so as to produce inequalities, and thereby meet the Hayekian concerns as far as they produce results that conflict with the idea of the rule of law. The analyzed provisions of the reparation schemes lead in practice to the creation of winners and losers of reparations, to a breach of the idea of formal equality before the law. In the conditions in which reparation schemes fall short from a thick conception of the rule of law (justice, rights or objective equality) it worth investigating, whether requirements of a thin reading-focusing on foreseability, clarity and consistency—are still met by post-communist property redistribution. Unfortunately at least under three aspects—valuation, time limits and probation—the reparation schemes’ provisions are not beyond criticism. The complexity of tasks that transition societies had to face is obvious and uncontested. Transitional law, according to Teitel, is a sui generis paradigm, a vehicle of social, political and ideological transformation. The amendments to the rule of law ideal, justifiable in the context of transition can go as far as—for example—to allow governments to decide upon the concrete form of the reparation, the type of wrongs it want to address, the period in time intended to be covered. But they may not create winners and losers; they may not distinguish between those placed in the same situation.

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The topic of my paper is the syntax and the quantificational force of free-choice items (FCIs) in Hungarian. FCIs such as any have been at the forefront of research interest in the past decades (e.g., Ladusaw 1979; Kadmon & Landman 1993; Giannakidou 2001). The close interdependence of syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic considerations makes the study of FCIs one of the most interesting research programmes. Earlier investigations of the syntax and semantics of FCIs in Hungarian include Hunyadi (1991; 2002), Abrusán (2007) and Szabó (2012). In my paper, I show that FCIs in Hungarian occupy the syntactic position associated with distributive quantifiers (É. Kiss 2010). Furthermore, I examine the quantificational force of FCIs by the well-known battery of quantification tests (for a previous application for Hungarian, cf. Surányi 2006): almost-modification, modification by exceptive phrase, donkey anaphora, predicative use, is-modification, incorporation and split reading with modals. My findings of mixed quantificational behaviour provide further corroboration for the analysis of FCIs as quantificationally underspecified intensional dependent indefinites.

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, Seth. 2013 . Distributive numerals and distance distributivity in Tlingit (and beyond) . Lingbuzz/001814. Caponigro , Ivano and Anamaria Falaus . 2017 . Free choice free relative clauses in Italian and Romanian . Natural Language and

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Az ECMO-kezelés megszüntetésének etikai kérdései

Ethical questions of withdrawing ECMO treatment

Orvosi Hetilap
Author:
József Kovács

distributive justice argument permits stopping ECMO. Am J Bioeth. 2023; 23(6): 65–67. 14 Callies DE. Unilateral ECMO withdrawal and the argument from

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