The study deals with theoretical questions of the Hungarian privatization law. It clarifies the differences between the economic and legal concept of privatization, the various interpretations of privatization. The Hungarian privatization was the earliest and at the same time-after the German-the quickest completed privatization in the former socialist countries. It reviews the so-called spontaneous privatization between 1988–1990, and the privatization legislature of 1992 and 1995 as well. As a conclusion the study deals with the evaluation of the privatization law, and with the consequences of privatization with regards to social politics.
For a long period, Southeast Asian economies have been export-oriented, mostly to Europe and North America. To earn foreign exchanges and speed their economic growth, ASEAN countries have moved to combine foreign and national capital to promote indigenous industrial development and native economic growth. For this purpose, ASEAN countries have set up enormous foreign investment incentives to attract foreign capital and enacted related foreign investment regulations many times to catch more foreign investors’ eyes. However, the dissimilar economic developmental levels and the different political backgrounds, ASEAN countries have varied investment environment and regulations. Since both the formation of ASEAN and ASEAN members themselves are more focused on attracting foreign investment, one may ask what differences of foreign investment environment and regulations ASEAN member states have? The article hopes to analyze ASEAN member’s investment environment and selected members’ investment regulations in order to examine the interactions between national developmental demands and foreign investment regulations through a comparative study of ASEAN member states’ laws on foreign investment.
excessive credit growth) may lead to an increase of foreigncapital inflows, which via currency exchange appreciation may in turn increase the risk of foreign currency exposures. Prolonged expansive monetary policy induces the over-indebtedness of households
exposure to FDI remained almost the same ( Hunya 2017; Sass 2020 ). Overall, the Visegrad countries still rely mainly on foreigncapital in their development path ( Bohle – Greskovits 2018; Sass 2021a ). Rather, this partly reoriented strategy added to
in less than five years it more than doubled its debt to GDP level from 21% in 1995 to almost 50% by 2000. Due to the increased pressure the government decided to open its borders to foreigncapital and in the 2000s a great deal of the incoming
) are sink-OFCs, which attract and retain foreigncapital via low taxation and lenient regulation. Since my focus is also on the income distribution implications of public spending and tax decisions, I look at labour taxes for different types of earners
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ForeignCapital and Imports on Economic Growth: Further Evidence from Four Asian Countries (1970–1998) . Journal of Asian Economics , 15 ( 2 ): 399 – 413 . 10.1016/j.asieco.2004.02.008 North , D. C. ( 1955 ): Location Theory and Regional Economic
Stagnation rather than its Cause? Acta Oeconomica , 67 ( S ): 67 – 77 . 10.1556/032.2017.67.s.6 Prasad , E. S. – Rajan , R. G. – Subramanian , A. ( 2007 ): ForeignCapital and Economic Growth . NBER Working Paper , No. 13619 . PWT ( 2017
economic crisis (flight of foreigncapital, combined with decreasing internal demands), and a currency crisis (either in an attempt to repay debts the state is printing excessively its own money which leads to inflation, 23 and/or the economic crisis or