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. 2010 . Carabid beetles among grassland – forest edge – beech forest habitats in Northern Hungary . Community Ecol. 11 : 211 – 216 . Ernst , C.M. and N. Cappuccino . 2005 . The

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distribution of Babesia canis and its two 18S rDNA genotypes in questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in urban habitats . Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 7 , 694 – 697 . Hornok , S. , Kováts , D

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Research on wild bees (Apiformes) was conducted in the Lower Oder Valley (NW Poland) at Natura 2000 sites near the border between Poland and Germany. The analysis involved 3 landscape types with xerothermic and sandy grasslands, differing in the proportion of woody vegetation. In total, we collected there 4158 specimens of Apiformes, representing 180 species. We have proved that mid-forest grasslands with a high proportion of thermophilous broad-leaved forests and xerothermic shrub communities are equally attractive to wild bees as open habitats (sandy grasslands, xerothermic grasslands/heaths). We observed varied responses of wild bee species with specific functional characteristics to increasing proportion of woody vegetation. The grasslands surrounded by forests were characterized by the highest number of cleptoparasitic species. In contrast, solitary and social bee species preferred forest-steppe habitats. However, in open habitats, solitary bees were the most abundant. Moreover, open habitats were distinguished by the highest number and abundance of rare species. Active protection of thermophilous grasslands is crucial for biodiversity conservation, also with respect to the natural resources of Apiformes. Preservation of biodiversity in threatened xerothermic and sandy grasslands should be one of the key objectives of nature conservation in European countries. Currently, more and more actions are undertaken to improve their condition and to restore those particularly valuable and threatened habitat types.

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Abstract

Objective

To determine the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with R software hierarchical cluster analysisin Elaeagnus angustifolia L. gathered from different locations in Xinjiang.

Methods

A chromatographic column Diamonsil C18 with a size of 4.6 × 250 mm and 5 μm was used with methanol as A and 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as B as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL/min for the gradient elution and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC was performed with a detection wavelength of 260 nm and chromatographic column of 35 °C. In addition, R software hierarchical clustering method was used for studying the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. from 10 areas.

Results

Gallic acid and ellagic acid showed a good linear relationship between 7.375 and 236 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and between 3.625 and 116 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 respectively. The average recovery values were 103.98 and 101.57%, and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values were 1.92 and 1.47%.

Conclusion

Differences in the levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid in E. angustifolia L. leaves from different areas in Xinjiang showed that both were the highest in Kuitun.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sándor Hornok, Maria Mulvihill, Krisztina Szőke, Enikő Gönczi, Kinga M. Sulyok, Miklós Gyuranecz, and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

. Bíró , Z. , Szemethy , L. , Katona , K. , Heltai , M. and Pető , Z. ( 2006 ): Seasonal distribution of red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) in a forest-agriculture habitat in Hungary . Mammalia 70 , 70 – 75

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Community Ecology
Authors: B. Tajthi, R. Horváth, Sz. Mizser, D. D. Nagy, and B. Tóthmérész

isolated fragments preserve habitat specialist spiders best in dry sandy grasslands in Hungary . Biodivers. Conserv. 22 : 2139 – 2150 . Ishitani , M. , D

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. Gallé , L. 1986 . Habitat and niche analysis of grassland ants . Entomol. Gen. 11 : 197 – 211 . Gallé , L. 1991 . Structure and

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, T. Dunne , G. Reeves , G. Pess and M. Pollock . 2004 a. The network dynamics hypothesis: How channel networks structure riverine habitats . Bioscience 54 : 413 – 427 . Benda

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season in North-Eastern Romannia: the influence of density, habitat selection and weather . Ornis Fennica 90 : 186 – 192 . Beyer , H.L. , E. Gurarie , L. Börger , M. Panzacchi , M

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. 1993 . The measure of order and disorder in the distribution of species in fragmented habitat . Oecologia 96 : 373 – 382 . Azrina , M.K. , C

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