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development. Diseased grains are shrivelled, discoloured, and lightweight ( Goswami and Kistler, 2004 ). Under favourable conditions, Fusarium species can produce mycotoxins, mainly deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins (FUM

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; Wang et al., 2006 ). Mycotoxins are small and toxic chemical products formed by different fungal species. These species can contaminate feedstuff with toxins during cultivation or after harvest and cause a toxic response when ingested by vertebrate

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: V. Parrag, Z. Gillay, Z. Kovács, A. Zitek, K. Böhm, B. Hinterstoisser, R. Krska, M. Sulyok, J. Felföldi, F. Firtha, and L. Baranyai

Introduction The detection of fungal infections is of great importance in food science since one of the most serious problems of food safety is the presence of mycotoxins produced by microscopic fungi. Molds can grow on many kinds of substrates

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Benjámin Kövesi, Szabina Kulcsár, Mátyás Cserháti, Márta Erdélyi, Zsolt Ancsin, Erika Zándoki, Miklós Mézes, and Krisztián Balogh

, increasing evidence shows that the toxicity of AFB 1 is due to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which causes oxidative stress ( Marin and Taranu, 2012 ). Although it remains unknown whether the mycotoxins promote lipid peroxidation

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Introduction Ochratoxins are worldwide occurring mycotoxins primarily produced by the mould species Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum ( Gupta, 2007 ). These toxins contaminate different grains, such as barley, corn, wheat, and oat

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Mariam Kachlek, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Zsófia Blochné Bodnár, Katalin Horvatovich, and Melinda Kovács

Fusarium mycotoxins, such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), frequently co-occur in feed raw materials and their presence is ubiquitous. The aims of this study were to determine the concentration that inhibits cell viability by 50% (IC50 values) for each mycotoxin (after 24, 48 and 72 h) and to investigate their combined effects in binary (DON + ZEN: DZ, DON + FB1: DF, FB1 + ZEN: FZ) and ternary (DFZ) mixtures using cyto- and genotoxicity on porcine lymphocytes as endpoints. The potency of cytotoxicity of the three toxins in an increasing order was FB1 < ZEN < DON. The range of IC values depending on the period of exposure was 0.31–0.42 μg/ml and 16.6– 22.9 μg/ml for DON and ZEN, respectively, and 101.15 μg/ml for FB1 (50% viability was reached only after 72 h). The main interaction observed was antagonism regarding cytotoxicity. Lower and higher sets of concentrations were used for the genotoxicity (comet assay) experiments. When lower concentrations were used, antagonism was again the main interaction observed. However, at higher concentrations an antagonism was confirmed only for DFZ, whereas for DZ and FZ a synergism was observed. Interactions of DF were inconsistent in different exposure periods in both series of experiments. Further studies with additional endpoints should be performed (e.g. DNA fragmentation, protein synthesis) in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the interactions observed.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Dániel J. Kócsó, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh, Szilamér Ferenczi, András Szabó, Brigitta Bóta, and Melinda Kovács

The objective of this experiment was to determine whether fumonisin B1 (FB1) added to the diet of rats in a dose of 50 mg/kg changes the production of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the lungs and kidney of rats. We also studied the effect of this mycotoxin on the antioxidant system of the body. Mature (8 weeks old) male Wistar Crl:WI BR rats (n = 6/group) were fed the toxin-containing diet for 5 days. FB1 resulted in a 7% body weight reduction without significantly changing the feed intake. Western blot analysis of the lungs and kidney demonstrated a substantial (1.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively) increase in Hsp70 expression. Alterations could not be detected in the clinical chemical parameters (total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and aspartate aminotransferase activity). There was no statistically significant change in malondialdehyde concentrations and the measured antioxidant parameters (the amount of reduced glutathione, GSH and glutathione peroxidase activity, GPx) in the blood plasma, lung and kidney tissue. Thus, it can be concluded that FB1 did not induce oxidative stress in the lungs and kidney, but increased Hsp70 production.

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Insects are alternative protein sources as nutritious novel food. However, there are some risks associated with the consumption of insects, even if rearing in controlled systems. Except for a recent EFSA opinion on the safety of insects as food, the European law is not conclusive regarding using insects as food products. Insects may be associated with microorganisms, but the prevalence of pathogens is usually lower than in case of other animal proteins. Insect proteins can induce allergic reactions, but only few studies are available on allergic reactions due to insect ingestion, and direct hypersensitivity to insect protein has not been proven. Some insect species are considered toxic, because some toxic substances are accumulated from toxic plants or are synthesized by the insects. However, there are few reports available about adverse reactions caused by insect consumption. Insects and insect derived food products may contain hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins, mycotoxins, plant toxins, biocides, and veterinary drugs. However, data on hazardous chemicals in reared insects and accumulation of chemical contaminants from the substrates are limited. This review is not demonstrating the safety of insects as a food category, but the possibility of insects for human consumption with no more hazards than other animal products.

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Biologia Futura
Authors: Rubina Tu¨nde Szabó, Mária Kovács-Weber, Márta Erdélyi, Krisztián Balogh, Natasa Fazekas, Ákos Horváth, Miklós Mézes, and Balázs Kovács

toxic mycotoxin with a trichothecene structure ( Escrivá et al., 2015 ; Osselaere et al., 2013 ). HT-2 toxin has been identified as the major metabolite of T-2 toxin in vivo and in vitro with similar toxicity ( Yang et al., 2016 ). Many undesirable

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Cs. Dobolyi, K. Inotai, I. Bata-Vidács, D. Sárkány, O. Csernus, S. Kocsubé, B. Tóth, A. Szekeres, and J. Kukolya

1 Introduction Fungi are the major cause of spoilage in stored grain. The Food and Agriculture Association estimates that 25% of the world's food crops are affected by mycotoxins during growth and storage. The damage of fungi is second only to that

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