Authors:Norbert Novák, Péter Miklós Kőmíves, Mónika Harangi-Rákos, and Károly Pető
1 Introduction People living in urban or rural areas face different but in many cases similar opportunities and challenges. Urban areas are characterized by a high density of people, consumers, employees and businesses. However, high population
CCI to calculate for future trends. The selected factors that are to be used as variables are listed as follows; population, unemployment rate, national income, GDP, construction price, CPI, CCI cement and CCI all commodities. Every variable is
Population growth in a number of central European cities necessitates the creation of additional living spaces within the existing urban settings. Toward this end, densification via rooftop extension of existing buildings can provide a partial solution. As the requirements regarding energy performance, summer-time thermal comfort, and structural integrity of attic expansions have been increasingly tightened, planners must carefully assess the advantages and disadvantages of different construction possibilities. Focusing specifically on timber construction as a kind of reference, the present contribution includes a comparison of six different (both conventional and novel) construction solutions for roof top extensions in view of different performance criteria, such as ecological footprint, impact on energy indicators, summer overheating mitigation, cost, and construction time. To conduct the comparison in a transparent manner, the selected construction methods were virtually applied to a case-study building and assessed via multiple tools, including a numeric thermal simulation application.
The use of energy in the world today is increasing with increase in population. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies and the stability of our environment. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources on a worldwide basis has necessitated an urgent search for alternative energy sources to cater to the present day demands. In recent years there has been a significant global commitment to develop clean and alternative sources of energy such as solar and wind. Wind energy technology has been the fastest growing energy source because it is fairly distributed around the world and readily available for use. However, more penetration of wind energy into existing power networks has some impacts on the stability of the power system. Therefore, this paper studies and analyzes the stability of a power system with increasing wind penetration. The paper presents some analyses of a power system and the dynamic behavior which identify the issues that limit the large-scale integration of wind generators in a power system.
Authors:Caturwati Ni Ketut, Yusuf Yusvardi, and Komara Fajar Muhamad
The availability of freshwater is increasingly becoming an international concern because of the increase in population and the diminishing forest area as a source of water, leading to a freshwater crisis. The coastal and swamp areas abound in water, but humans cannot consume it due to the quality. One effort that can be done in overcoming this problem is by treating existing raw water with solar distillation methods. However, the main obstacle faced in this method is the intensity of sunlight that is not stable throughout the day so that the productivity of distilled water is disrupted. Using the appropriate phase change material (PCM) is expected to make the distillation process smoother and increase the production of pure water. In this study, myristic acid was used as PCM in double slope solar distillation system. Through observation, it was obtained that the average water temperature in the basin equaled to 42.5 °C while the melting point of the myristic acid was 58 °C. This shows that the use of myristic acid as an energy storage through phase change process does not occur. Therefore, the use of myristic acid as PCM for increasing the productivity of solar distillation in these experiments is not effective because the melting point of PCM is higher than water temperature in the basin. Therefore, material with a phase change temperature below 42.5 °C is more appropriate to use in these conditions.
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
potential solutions with a quick response time. GA is a heuristic technique based on the same biological principle but applied numerically, such that individuals represent a chromosome embodying a set of bits [0 1]. A population of chromosomes is a set of
Authors:István Szűcs, Andrea Bauerné Gáthy, Angéla Soltész, and Laura Mihály-Karnai
county rank 226 45.2 City 131 26.2 Settlement (populatio n between 2,000 and 10,000 people) 38 7.6 Settlement (population below 2000 people) 97 19.4 Subjective income We have daily financial problems 6 1.2 Sometimes we have financial problems 17 3.4 We
Authors:Ekhlas H. Karam, Noor S. Abdul-Jaleel, and Basma J. Salah
neighborhood. Mathematically, if X J t and X K t are selected from the same population, this similarity becomes a local random walk if U is drawn from a uniform distribution in [0, 1]. Nevertheless, the natural actions of flower pollination may appear
Authors:B. Oláhné Horváth, E. Fazekas, N. Kellner, and I. Magyar
refermentation state with 1.86×10 5 CFU ml -1 initial cell concentration. Total yeast count was determined by culturing on DRBC agar (Sigma Aldrich), and the population was found heterogeneous upon colony and microscopic morphology (no further identification