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The European corn borer moth, (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Pyraustinae) is one of the most destructive pests of maize worldwide. ECB has two pheromone-strains, separated by specific ratios of isomers of E- and Z11-tetradecenyl acetates (E11- and Z11-14Ac), but appearing morphologically identical. Accordingly, E- and Z-ECB pheromone traps are available for the respective populations for practical monitoring of the flight, however, traps for Z-strain are unreliable for practical usage in some parts of Central-Europe. E- and Z-ECB populations occur in sympatry in some areas, while in allelopatry in other areas. Determining the strains before the flight of adults, when difference in the composition of their respective pheromones is manifested, would be of practical interest for early warning. In addition to the known fatty-acyl-reductase (FAR) marker, further markers would allow more comprehensive studies. We screened the following common markers for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions: partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), cytochrome B (CytB), the second spacer of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), Elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and actin gene (Act). In addition, a marker of the Δ11-desaturase gene (11desat), linked to biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromone, was also included, because we reported earlier a differential expression for this site. Three Z-ECB populations locating at distant sites within Hungary, an area where only Z-strain occurs, and an E-ECB population in Slovenia, known as the closest-occurring E-strain, were included into the study. Separate laboratory colonies were established from each population, and F1 generations were sampled to verify the identity of pheromone strains, by analysing the composition of sex pheromone by gas chromatography linked to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). Molecular studies were conducted using specimens taken from the F2 generations. Results of genetic studies showed that there were no differences between the Z and E populations for the common markers. In contrast to this, several nucleic acid changes (11 nt in 4 positions) were found between the three Z-populations (Hungary) and the E-population (Slovenia) in the desaturase marker. Further study is required to reveal whether the differences found in this study are consistent across E-populations, thus making these markers suitable for diagnostic purposes.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease globally with its impact more dramatic in resource limited settings. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who also develop tuberculosis represent a significant challenge to TB control. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of TB—HIV coinfection and pattern of infection among TB patients. We also compared treatment outcome among coinfected patients with those not coinfected.

A six-year retrospective review of records of patients managed at the Tuberculosis Treatment Center of the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South-Western Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2014 was carried out.

One hundred and five (26.3%) of the 399 TB patients seen in the study period were coinfected with HIV. About 10% of the subjects had extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment failure was significantly worse among patients who had both HIV and TB compared with those who had TB only (49.5% vs. 32%, p = 0.001). Death rate was also higher in the coinfected individuals implying a poorer clinical outcome.

High prevalence of TB—HIV coinfection and poor treatment outcome in this group of individuals, though predictable, calls for a more concerted effort in the management of TB—HIV coinfection.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, and Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix

the general population in the rural communities in the northern Mexican state of Durango. Materials and Methods Study Design We performed a cross-sectional serosurvey using serum samples from previous

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, Bemisia tabaci , (Gennadius) population in tomato crop and the incidence of tomato leaf curl virus . J Maharashtra Agric Univ 1 , 42 – 45 ( 1976 ) 8. Orcutt

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. Press , Washington . Alder , P. and J. Silverman 2004 . A comparison of monitoring methods used to detect changes in Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) populations

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J , Modlin RL , Miller JF , Sodergren E , Craft N , Weinstock GM , Li H : Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne . J Invest Dermatol 133 , 2152 – 2160 ( 2013

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. , Cardot , J. , Brischoux , F. , Fellmann , D. , Griffond , B. , Risold , P. Y. ( 2013 ) The vertebrate diencephalic MCH system: a versatile neuronal population in an evolving brain . Front Neuroendocrinol. 34 , 65 – 87

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Liliane Kouabla Siransy, Zizendorf Yves Nanga, Flore Sandrine Zaba, Nyasenu Yawo Tufa, and Sery Romuald Dasse

TGH , Callegari-Jacques SM , Goldani LZ : The higher frequency of blood group B in a Brazilian population with HIV infection . Open AIDS J 7 , 47 – 50 ( 2013 ) 12

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß, Wycliffe O. Masanta, Gunter Linsel, Astrid Heutelbeck, and Andreas E. Zautner

T , Verminnen K , De Buyzere M , Rietzschel E , Bekaert S , Vanrompay D : Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in a human population in contact with domestic and companion birds . J Med Microbiol 58 , 1207 – 1212

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Luis Omar Berumen-Segovia, Yazmin Elizabeth Torres-Prieto, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, María Nalleli Ortiz-Jurado, Gabriel Molotla-de-León, Isabel Beristain-García, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez, and Oliver Liesenfeld

, Liesenfeld O , Dubey JP : Toxoplasma gondii infection and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma se ro prevalence Mexican population . Parasitol Int 60 , 151 – 155 ( 2011 ) 11

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