Authors:A. Özer, Selcan Turker, Seyda Çolak, Mustafa Korkmaz, Ekrem Kiliç, and Meral Özalp
The use of gamma rays for the sterilization of pharmaceutical raw materials and dosage forms is an alternative method for sterilization. However, one of the major problems of the radiosterilization is the production of new radiolytic products during the irradiation process. Therefore, the principal problem in radiosterilization is to determine and to characterize these physical and chemical changes originating from high-energy radiation. Parenteral drug delivery systems were prepared and in vitro characterization, biodistribution and treatment studies were done in our previous studies. Drug delivery systems (liposomes, niosomes, lipogelosomes and niogelosomes) encapsulating diclofenac sodium (DFNa) were prepared for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This work complies information about the studies developed in order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied as a sterilization method to DFNa, and the raw materials as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), surfactant I [polyglyceryl-3-cethyl ether (SUR I)], dicethyl phosphate (DCP) and cholesterol (CHOL) that are used to prepare those systems. The raw materials were irradiated with different radiation doses (5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) and physicochemical changes (organoleptic properties pH, UV and melting point), microbiological evaluation [sterility assurance level (SAL), sterility and pyrogen test] and electron spin resonance (ESR) characteristics were studied at normal (25 °C, 60% relative humidity) and accelerated (40 °C, 75% relative humidity) stability test conditions.
Authors:Monika Drážovská, Boris Vojtek, Jana Mojžišová, Simona Koleničová, Filip Koľvek, Marián Prokeš, Ľuboš Korytár, Alexander Csanady, Anna Ondrejková, Tatiana Vataščinová, and Mangesh Ramesh Bhide
average relativehumidity of 60% and rainfall varying from 500 to 2000 mm ( Onderka et al., 2020 ), the whole territory of Slovakia represents a very suitable biotope for tick occurrence ( Bazovska et al., 2005 ). Fig. 1. Locations of the sampling sites. 1
Authors:K. Kály-Kullai, M. Wittmann, Z. Noszticzius, and László Rosivall
. Indeed, Morino et al. [ 16 ] reported that when applying a low concentration of ClO 2 in the gas phase against FCV in dry state, atmospheric moisture – at least a 75–85% relativehumidity – is indispensable to inactivate viruses. The advantage of using a
Seated coca-chewer (note the characteristic bulge on his right cheek), ceramic, 16.3 cm. Capulí culture, Museo del Banco Central del Ecuador (after Ontadena Luciano, 1998 , p. 10)
Due to the high relativehumidity of