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postulates that people actively construct their mental representations toward potential health threats (i.e., an illness). Illness representation consists of cognitive representations and emotional representations. These two components interact with each

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Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
Authors: Andrew Watt, Deiniol Skillicorn, Jediah Clark, Rachel Evans, Paul Hewlett, and Nick Perham


Heterosexual men and women differ in their sensitivity to cues indicating material status. This dissociation has been explained by appealing to sexual selection processes that encourage women to evaluate men on the basis of their material status but could perhaps be explained by sex differences in contextual attention, or, associative representations.


In Experiment 1, heterosexual women rated the attractiveness of an opposite sex model in 4 conditions; (1) attractive context, (2) attractive context with implied ownership, (3) unattractive context, and (4) unattractive context with ownership implied. A second experiment used a fictitious stockbroker learning task (with both men and women) in 2 biconditional discriminations to measure contextual attention (stage 1) and then to explore the structure of contextual representation (stage 2) using a transfer of occasion setting test.


In Experiment 1, females increased ratings in attractive contexts, both when context ownership was implied and when it was not. In the first stage of Experiment 2, men and women were equally sensitive to contextual cues. In stage 2, women’s learning was impaired when a stimulus previously used as a target was employed as a context (they showed transfer of occasions setting), men showed no such difference.


Sex differences in sensitivity to cues indicating material status may reflect how men and women tend to encode the relationships between background/context stimuli and target stimuli. Women automatically attend to the background and modulate the value of targets using a hierarchical form of representation, whilst men represent background-target associations configurally.

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, is also present ( Cerniglia et al., 2019; Eccles, 1999; Lim & Nam, 2018 ). Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the joint contribution of mother and father attachment representations and negative beliefs about worry in explaining PIU in

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Barbara Penolazzi, Fabio Del Missier, Davide Francesco Stramaccia, Anna Laura Monego, Luigi Castelli, Amalia Manzan, Marco Bertoli, and Giovanni Galfano

Introduction Inhibitory control is essential to an adaptive and flexible goal-directed behavior, which requires the ability to override the automatic activation of irrelevant or inappropriate representations and responses. The most investigated part

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“crown-bump” (umbo) or cranial protrusion that characterizes depictions of many Buddhas. Crowley examines the characteristics and representations of the “Crown-bump White parasol Lady” deity to show these reflect descriptions of Psilocybe species. This

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-historical others but historical agents here and now. Superficial representations of Indigenous peoples and their knowledge systems only cause further trauma. When using plants that have been previously used by Indigenous peoples, at the very least they should be

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in working memory ( Aguirre, Detre, Alsop, & D’Esposito, 1996; Engle & Kane, 2004 ; Luck et al., 2010 ). The ParaHG region has the ability to maintain stimulus representations for a long time, and in doing so, the simultaneous stimuli can be combined

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). Several studies indicate that sleep-related benefits of memory consolidation are restricted to skill-learning paradigms that require attention, intentional learning ( Wilhelm et al., 2011 ), explicit (verbally accessible) representations of the sequence

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particular, Kubanyiova’s ( 2009 ) work on developing the concept of possible language teacher self is worth noting here, which is understood as “ language teachers’ cognitive representations of their ideal, ought-to and feared selves in relation to their

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.1016/0013-4694(96)95711-9 Eimer , M. , & Kiss , M. ( 2010 ). An electrophysiological measure of access to representations in visual working memory . Psychophysiology , 47 , 197 — 200 . 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00879.x Everitt , B. J. ( 2014 ). Neural and psychological

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