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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hannah Schmidt
,
Dominique Brandt
,
Anja Bischof
,
Silja Heidbrink
,
Gallus Bischof
,
Stefan Borgwardt
, and
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

). Screening instruments for IUD Despite the constant development and publication of new screening instruments, the optimal assessment of IUD is still unclear. Most screening instruments suffer from an insufficient conceptual or methodological

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prevalence estimates vary greatly depending on the screening instrument used ( Stevens et al., 2021 ). At present, the landscape of instruments is manifold. Most measures are based on DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder and none seems clearly

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, 2017 ). Since the ICD-11 will come into effect in January 2022, an instrument to assess GD in young gamers by parental ratings is urgently needed. To the best of our knowledge, despite clinical and research needs, no validated GD screening instrument

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” or “disordered” gamers using one of the many available screening instruments that have been created over the last two decades ( King et al., 2020 ). Some commentators have criticized the evidence as “weak” ( van Rooij et al. 2018 , p. 6), and raised

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Hannah Schmidt
,
Dominique Brandt
,
Christian Meyer
,
Anja Bischof
,
Gallus Bischof
,
Anika Trachte
,
Bettina Besser
,
Svenja Orlowski
,
Samantha Schlossarek
,
Stefan Borgwardt
, and
Hans-Jürgen Rumpf

as a screening instrument for problematic and disordered Internet use. Baseline interviews Of 3.078 students with a CIUS sum score ≥ 21(=positive screening), 1.475 agreed to be contacted for further telephone-based diagnostic interviews (=Baseline

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Joshua B. Grubbs
,
Rory C. Reid
,
Beáta Bőthe
,
Zsolt Demetrovics
,
Eli Coleman
,
Neil Gleason
,
Michael H. Miner
,
Johannes Fuss
,
Verena Klein
,
Karol Lewczuk
,
Mateusz Gola
,
David P. Fernandez
,
Elaine F. Fernandez
,
Stefanie Carnes
,
Michal Lew-Starowicz
,
Drew Kingston
, and
Shane W. Kraus

compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs) and present a need for full clinician-based screening for CSBD. Even so, this scale is lengthy at 19 items and is slightly complex to score given the subscales, which may preclude its use as a brief screening instrument in

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Background

Behavioral addictions often onset in adolescence and increase the risk of psychological and social problems later in life. The core symptoms of addiction are tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, lack of control, and compulsive occupation with the behavior. Psychometrically validated tools are required for detection and early intervention. Adolescent screening instruments exist for several behavioral addictions including gambling and video gaming addiction but not for exercise addiction. Given recent empirical and clinical evidence that a minority of teenagers appear to be experiencing exercise addiction, a psychometrically robust screening instrument is required.

Aims

The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) – a robust screening instrument that has been used across different countries and cultures – and to assess the prevalence of exercise addiction and associated disturbed eating.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey was administered to three high-risk samples (n = 471) aged 11–20 years (mean age: 16.3 years): sport school students, fitness center attendees, and patients with eating disorder diagnoses. A youth version of the EAI (EAI-Y) was developed and distributed. Participants were also screened for disordered eating with the SCOFF Questionnaire.

Results

Overall, the EAI-Y demonstrated good reliability and construct validity. The prevalence rate of exercise addiction was 4.0% in school athletes, 8.7% in fitness attendees, and 21% in patients with eating disorders. Exercise addiction was associated with feelings of guilt when not exercising, ignoring pain and injury, and higher levels of body dissatisfaction.

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Abstract

Aims

This article addresses the stable tendency of excessive and compulsive working (i.e., workaholism). The main aim is to provide an updated oversight of the research area related to definition, prevalence, assessment, causes, outcomes, intervention as well as proposed future research directions. The target-population is both researchers and clinicians.

Methods

The findings are identified by narratively reviewing the literature.

Results

Research into workaholism has expanded over the last two decades. Several screening instruments to identify workaholics have been developed. The vast majority of these are based on seemingly atheoretical foundations, lacking convergent validity with each other and with related constructs. Research generally shows that workaholism is related to impaired health and well-being as well as to conflicts between work and family life. Workaholism is probably caused and maintained by a range of factors, although solid empirical underpinnings for suggested antecedents are currently sparse. So far no well-evaluated interventions for workaholism exist.

Conclusions

At present, workaholism as a construct lacks conceptual and empirical clarity. Future research efforts should prioritize longitudinal studies as well as studies incorporating unbiased, firm parameters of both health and behavior.

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Background and aims

Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) – a short, valid, and reliable instrument.

Methods

Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071).

Results

The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers.

Discussion and conclusion

Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia.

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Background and aims

Unregulated Internet pornography (IP) use is discussed as a clinically significant disorder. Because of its primarily rewarding nature, IP is a predestinated target for addictive behaviors. However, not every user develops an unregulated usage pattern. In fact, most users tend to use IP recreationally. Impulsivity-related constructs have been identified as promoters of addictive behaviors. It is unclear whether these impulsivity-related constructs are specific for unregulated IP use or also play a role in recreational but frequent behaviors. In this study, we investigated impulsive tendencies (trait impulsivity, delay discounting, and cognitive style), craving toward IP, attitude regarding IP, and coping styles in individuals with recreational–occasional, recreational–frequent, and unregulated IP use.

Methods

A total of 1,498 heterosexual males participated in an online survey. Groups of individuals with recreational–occasional use (n = 333), recreational–frequent use (n = 394), and unregulated use (n = 225) of IP were identified by screening instruments.

Results

Craving and attitude regarding IP as well as delay discounting and cognitive and coping styles differed between groups. Individuals with unregulated use showed the highest scores for craving, attentional impulsivity, delay discounting, and dysfunctional coping, and lowest scores for functional coping and need for cognition. Recreational–frequent users had the most positive attitude toward IP. Motor and non-planning impulsivity did not differ between groups.

Discussion and conclusions

The results indicate that some facets of impulsivity and related factors such as craving and a more negative attitude are specific for unregulated IP users. The results are also consistent with models on specific Internet use disorders and addictive behaviors.

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