Authors:Sam-Wook Choi, Hyun Kim, Ga-Young Kim, Yeongju Jeon, Su Park, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Jung, Bo Sohn, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim
Leeman, R. F. & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 219 (2), 469
Authors:Abraham Hafiz Rodriguez, Sarah Nath Zallek, Michael Xu, Jean Aldag, Lori Russell-Chapin, Tobias A. Mattei, and N. Scott Litofsky
et al., 2010 ). Together, these findings suggest that various types of music may promote changes in central nervous system activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function that have similarities to various stages of sleep, while the listener
The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a group of young Italians who self-injure. In examining the characteristics, specific attention was given to the feelings and personal experiences associated with episodes of NSSI.
The research involved 362 young people (332 females and 30 males) who completed an online survey hosted on a website specifically geared to supporting young people who self-injure. This methodology enabled involving a diverse population of young people who self-injure, thus going beyond specific groups or clinical samples.
Results show that the majority of respondents start injuring themselves between the ages of 12 and 16 years (72.38%, n = 262). Cutting was the most common self-injuring method (81.77%, n = 297). The 79.83% (n = 289) of respondents had not sought professional help for their wounds, preferring to care for their wounds on their own. More than half of the respondents (56.91%, n = 206) claimed to have experienced anxiety-spectrum disorders and almost half of the respondents (41.71%, n = 151) claimed to have experienced some type of eating disorder.
Discussion and Conclusions
Many similarities have been found between this study and the literature, thus strengthening the hypothesis that NSSI is becoming a universal issue with similar characteristics across countries.
This commentary supports the argument that there is an increasing tendency to subsume a range of excessive daily behaviors under the rubric of non-substance related behavioral addictions. The concept of behavioral addictions gained momentum in the 1990s with the recent reclassification of pathological gambling as a non-substance behavioral addiction in DSM-5 accelerating this process. The propensity to label a host of normal behaviors carried out to excess as pathological based simply on phenomenological similarities to addictive disorders will ultimately undermine the credibility of behavioral addiction as a valid construct. From a scientific perspective, anecdotal observation followed by the subsequent modification of the wording of existing substance dependence diagnostic criteria, and then searching for biopsychosocial correlates to justify classifying an excessive behavior resulting in harm as an addiction falls far short of accepted taxonomic standards. The differentiation of normal from non-substance addictive behaviors ought to be grounded in sound conceptual, theoretical and empirical methodologies. There are other more parsimonious explanations accounting for such behaviors. Consideration needs to be given to excluding the possibility that excessive behaviors are due to situational environmental/social factors, or symptomatic of an existing affective disorder such as depression or personality traits characteristic of cluster B personalities (namely, impulsivity) rather than the advocating for the establishment of new disorders.
Authors:Elisa Wegmann, Benjamin Stodt, and Matthias Brand
Background and Aims
Most people use the Internet in a functional way to achieve certain goals and needs. However, there is an increasing number of people who experience negative consequences like loss of control and distress based on an excessive use of the Internet and its specific online applications. Some approaches postulate similarities with behavioral addictions as well as substance dependencies. They differentiate between a generalized and a specific Internet addiction, such as the pathological use of social networking sites (SIA–SNS). Prior studies particularly identified the use of applications, personal characteristics, and psychopathological symptoms as significant predictors for the development and maintenance of this phenomenon. So far, it remains unclear how psychopathological symptoms like depression and social anxiety interact with individual expectancies of Internet use and capabilities of handling the Internet, summarized as Internet literacy.
The current study (N = 334) investigated the interaction of these components in a structural equation model.
The results indicate that the effects of depression and social anxiety on SIA–SNS were mediated by Internet use expectancies and self-regulation.
Thus, Internet use expectancies seem to be crucial for SIA–SNS, which is in line with prior models.
SNS use may be reinforced by experienced gratification and relief from negative feelings. Individual competences in handling the Internet may be preventive for the development of SIA–SNS.
. Keddie & B. Baron (Eds.), Women in Middle Eastern history: Shifting boundaries in sex and gender . New Haven : Yale University Press .
Kleck , R. E. , & Rubenstein , C. ( 1975 ). Physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and
-Āryan Indian populations and supported the emergence of Vajrayāna Buddhism. The meanings behind these Vajrayāna deities nonetheless came from Hindu myth and ritual, and it is the tracing of these similarities between the deities of Hindu and Vajrayāna in their