1 Introduction Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) gained popularity in wastewater treatment since it is a single tank design, flexible system, with relatively easy automation [ 1 ]. The system configuration is quite simple; the tank has an inlet and
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To centralise or to decentralise: An overview of the most recent trends in wastewater treatment management , Journal of Environmental Management , Vol. 94 , No. 1 , 2012 , pp. 61 – 68 .
A welded steel protective cover used for the heat treatment of steel sheet coils is investigated. The protective cover is made of austenitic stainless steel and consists of three main segments, welded together, which have 1400 mm height each. The plate thicknesses at the lower, middle and upper segments are different. The investigation aimed to improve the lifetime and the number of heat cycles of the protective cover by changing the geometry, the effect of the thicknesses and the material. Damaged covers have been evaluated, made calculations of stress and deformations, and carried out a series of finite element simulations. Both horizontal and vertical corrugated sheets were simulated and compared. The non-corrugated plates were also investigated, but their performance was behind the corrugated ones. The original geometry and that of the horizontal corrugated plate are identical from the stress level point of view. The vertical position of the corrugated plate provided a better result than the horizontal one. The calculated and simulated results for the original geometry are close to the measured damage.
Authors:H. Al-Maliki, Z. Károly, Sz. Klébert, and G. Kalácska
, Williams R. L. , Pond R. C. ( 2001 ), Plasma modification of PTFE surfaces. Part I: Surfaces immediately following plasma treatment . Surface and Interface Analysis , 31 , 385 – 396 . DOI: 10.1002/sia
Authors:Adebayo Surajudeen Adekunle, Adekunle Akanni Adeleke, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Peter Olorunleke Omoniyi, Tajudeen Adelani Gbadamosi, and Jamiu Kolawole Odusote
solution heat treatment, the aluminum alloy is heated to a temperature range between 400 and 540 °C in order to re-dissolve the soluble alloying elements in solution to produce a single phase solution, that is, a solute-rich solid solution after holding at
Authors:Amahjour Narjisse and Khamlichi Abdellatif
. Fundamentals settings associated with the FEM are first to be fixed by examining the model convergence in terms of the grid independence test, near wall treatment and the location of the border of the discretized finite domain of calculation. This paper
Authors:Mona M. Fawzy, Mohamed S. Kamar, and Gehad M. Saleh
). The measurement conditions were an accelerating voltage of 30 kV with a beam diameter of 1 μm for a counting time of 60–120 s and a minimum detectable weight concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 wt%. Physical separation treatment for Abu Rusheid
Authors:Sulaiman Riza, Djasmir Marlinawati, and Mohamad Amran Mohd Fahmi
Segmentation is one of important methods in medical images processing, particularly as it allows images to be analysed. The method used for segmentation depends on the image problem to be resolved. In this research, knee cartilage needs to be segmented to determine the level of the Osteoarthritis (OA) and for further treatment. Knee cartilage is a soft hyline sponge that is located at the end of the femur, tibia and patella bone to release friction during movement. OA is a knee cartilage problem wherein there is a thinning of the cartilage that results in a shift especially happening between femur and tibia bone causing discomfort and pain. Thinning of the knee cartilage is due to many factors such as age, body weight, genetic, accident, sport injury and extreme use such as physical work. OA can occur to a male or female, child or adult. The effects experienced by patients with OA are such as difficulty to walk, limited movement, and pain in the thin cartilage areas. Monitoring of patients' condition needs to be done to help reduce the problem and thereby enable specialists to perform the appropriate treatment. Imaging is a method used today to monitor the condition of patients with OA. Previous studies showed that MRI is a suitable method for monitoring the condition of patients with OA because of its advantages in visualising knee cartilage more clearly than other imaging methods. Thus, for segmenting the knee cartilage which as mentioned before is an important process in medical images processing, the MR images were selected based on many factors. Segmentation in this study was aimed to obtain the cartilage region to diagnose patient OA level. Various segmentation techniques have been developed by researchers in segmenting the knee cartilage region but they have been unable to segment precisely due to the thin structure of the knee cartilage, especially for patients with intermediate and severe OA. COMSeg technique was developed to segment knee cartilage, especially for those experiencing a normal and intermediate OA and try to implement it to severe OA. The development of this new technique takes into account the imaging method used, the images feature obtained so it can be suitable to process knee image and then selection of an appropriate technique to be applied to the selected images as input.
Buildings are the largest consumers of energy, accounting for nearly 40% of all energy used. Therefore, an effective method of reducing energy consumption is to create and design more efficient buildings. In this paper details of a sustainable and green building design for a small residential home are presented. This design is unique in that it is built to Passive house standards, and using shipping containers. The structure will use four 20 ft. (6.1 m) high and one 40 ft. (12.2 m) high cube containers, with the four 20 ft. (6.1 m) making up the main floor and the 40 ft. (12.2 m) forming the second floor. The size is a modest 820 sq. ft. (76.2 m2) designed for a family with one or two children.
The goal for the building is to be as self-sufficient as possible which makes it ideally suited to an ‘off-grid’ rural setting. However, it can be adapted to be ‘on-grid’ as well. Solar energy will provide all the electricity needs through a photovoltaic battery system, and warm water with a solar water heater. The site will be water neutral by utilising rainwater harvesting and on site waste water treatment. The results from energy modelling, using HOT2000, are presented, as well as an in-depth analysis on different insulation types and strategies. Finally, a cost estimate exercise is conducted and results compared to other passive houses and traditional code compliance buildings.
Authors:Aqsa Yousaf, Tahira Shehzadi, Aqeel Farooq, and Komal Ilyas
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an energy compound present in living organisms and is required by living cells for performing operations such as replication, molecules transportation, chemical synthesis, etc. ATP connects with living cells through specialized sites called ATP-sites. ATP-sites are present in various proteins of a living cell. The life span of a cell can be controlled by controlling ATP compounds and without the provision of energy to ATP compounds, cells cannot survive. Countless diseases treatment (such as cancer, diabetes) can be possible once protein active sites are predicted. Considering the need for an algorithm that predicts ATP-sites with higher accuracy and effectiveness, this research work predicts protein ATP sites in a very novel way. Till now Position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM) along with many physicochemical properties have been used as features with deep neural networks in order to create a model that predicts the ATP-sites. To overcome this problem of complex computation, this exertion proposes k-mer feature vectors with simple machine learning (ML) models to attain the same or even better performance with less computation required. Using 2-mer as feature vectors, this research work trained and tested five different models including KNN, Conv1D, XGBoost, SVM and Random Forest. SVM gave the best performance on k-mer features. The accuracy of the created model is 96%, MCC 90% and ROC-AUC is 99%, which are the same or even better in some aspects than the state-of-the-art results. The state-of-the-art results have an accuracy of 97%, MCC 78% and ROC-AUC is 92%. One of the benefits of the created model is that it is much simpler and more accurate.