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Mennyit ér a biztonság? Biztonság mint a Magyarországra érkező német szenior turisták költését befolyásoló tényező

How much does security worth? Security, as a component for the tourism spending of German senior travellers

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Csaba Bíró

Összefoglalás. A biztonságra evidenciaként tekint az utazó a desztinációválasztás során. Annak tartalma erősen szubjektív, egyénenként eltérő szintet képvisel. A COVID–19-járvány időszakában megvalósult kutatásunk válasszal kívánt szolgálni többek között arra, hogy az időskorú német utazók esetében mely faktorok határozzák meg leginkább a desztináció preferenciát, és ez hogyan tükröződik a költésükben. 2021. július–október között megvalósításra került személyes megkérdezés végső mintáját 347 fő (55+ éves) német szenior utazó adta. Az eredmények rámutattak, hogy a marketingtudomány által, általánosan homogénként kezelt fogyasztói szegmens további alszegmensekre bontható, tipizálható, továbbá a desztináció preferenciát esetükben leginkább az infrastruktúra minősége és a biztonság határozza meg.

Summary. Introduction: Tourism does not exist without security. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, security is the second most determinant aspect after physiological concerns. We consider that as an evident fact, thus the secure nature of a destination is an obvious expectation regarding travelling aspects. The measure and actual meaning of this latter component is quite subjective, thus it varies person by person. Security can be investigated from several aspects, so it is important to highlight that our sample was analysed in relation to health security concerns.

Investigation materials and methods: In our research, conducted during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, we pursued to outline the role of security, as well as the so-called Corona-Protocol, which was established for prevention purposes regarding the chosen destinations in the case of elderly travellers, and to find out how it is reflected in their touristic spending. We conducted personal interviews (PAPI) between July and October 2021 with the participation of 419 people, whose final sample – after being filtered regarding age and nationality aspects – consisted of 347 German senior (age group: 55+) travellers. The survey was carried out on three locations within Hungary (Pécs, Kalocsa, Budapest) with the participation of coordinators.

Research outcomes: The received replies were analysed – at first, the 48 touristic variables were submitted to factor analysis, which helped in the allocation of main components. By the use of these main components, we identified further sub-segments (traveller types) within the segments, which gave a superb illustration about the inaccurate nature of the practice, when senior travellers are considered as a homogenous group. In the case of five clusters – despite similar age averages – we identified distinct characteristics concerning the aspects of qualifications, incomes and the measure of touristic expenses, while the priorities regarding destination expectations, security, infrastructure and pricing were also different. Despite their relatively weak explanation capacities, our outcomes – received by regression modelling – pointed out that regarding our sample, the measure of touristic expenses was mostly determined by the infrastructural quality of destination and security. Thereby we can answer the question how much the cost of security for German senior travellers is. Furthermore, another outcome was the realisation that different habitat locations within the same home country have significant impact on the spending of German senior travellers. Our research could constitute an appropriate basis for further research regarding the investigated subject and traveller segment.

Open access