Authors:M. Zheng, Y. Tian, H. Teng, J. Hu, F. Wang, Y. Zhao, and L. Yu
In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.
Authors:X. He, L. Wang, W. Pu, J. Ren, W. Wu, C. Jiang, and C. Wan
Thermal analysis of sulfurization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with elemental sulfur was investigated by thermogravimetry and
differential thermal analysis of the mixture of polyacrylonitrile and elemental sulfur up to 600°C. Due to the volatilization
of sulfur, the different heating rate (10 and 20 K min−1) and different mixture proportion of polyacrylonitrile and elemental sulfur were adopted to run the analysis. The different
heating rates make the DSC curves of sulfur different, but make the DSC curves of PAN similar. In the DSC curve of sulfur
for the heating rate of 20 K min−1 around 400°C, a small exothermic peak occurs at 400°C in the wide endothermic peak around 380∼420°C, indicative of that there
is an exothermic reaction around 400°C. In the DSC curves of the mixture, the peaks around 320°C are exothermic as the content
of sulfur is below 3.5:1 and endothermic as the content of sulfur is over 4:1, indicating that one of the reactions between
PAN and sulfur takes place around 320°C. In the TG curves of the mixture, the mass losses begin at 220°C, and sharply drop
down from 280°C. The curves for the low sulfur content obviously show two steps of mass loss, and curves for the high sulfur
content show only one step of mass loss, indicative of more sulfur is benefit for the complete sulfurization of PAN. This
study demonstrates that the TG/DSC analysis can give the parameter for the sulfurization, even if the starting mixture contains
the volatile sulfur.
Authors:X. W. Liu, Y. L. Feng, H. R. Li, P. Zhang, and P. Wang
Thermal decomposition kinetics of magnesite were investigated using non-isothermal TG-DSC technique at heating rate (β) of 15, 20, 25, 35, and 40 K min−1. The method combined Friedman equation and Kissinger equation was applied to calculate the E and lgA values. A new multiple rate iso-temperature method was used to determine the magnesite thermal decomposition mechanism function, based on the assumption of a series of mechanism functions. The mechanism corresponding to this value of F(a), which with high correlation coefficient (r-squared value) of linear regression analysis and the slope was equal to −1.000, was selected. And the Malek method was also used to further study the magnesite decomposition kinetics. The research results showed that the decomposition of magnesite was controlled by three-dimension diffusion; mechanism function was the anti-Jander equation, the apparent activation energy (E), and the pre-exponential term (A) were 156.12 kJ mol−1 and 105.61 s−1, respectively. The kinetic equation was
and the calculated results were in accordance with the experiment.
The catalytic and accelerating effects of three coal-burning additives (CBA) on the burning of graphite were studied with
the help of thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The kinetic study on the catalytic oxidation of the graphite doped with CBA was
carried out and the results were presented. The results show that the CBA can change the carbon oxidation/combustion course
by catalytic action and change the activation energy, thus improving the combustion efficiency.
Authors:H. Yang, Hua Yin, Z. Wang, L. Fan, Q. Li, and X. Zhu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in many countries for thousands of years and played an indispensable role in the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially the complicated and chronic ones. However, the application of TCM in diseases is still not fully recognized by people around the world, the main reason is that Chinese herb is a very complex mixture containing hundreds of different components. Thus, it is essential to make quality control and evaluation of TCM. A new quality evaluation method, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS), was developed to the quality control of alkaloids in TCM, a case study on Radix aconiti lateralis, named Fuzi in Chinese. Six alkaloids, including aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine, were selected as main components to evaluate the quality of Radix aconiti lateralis. The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using aconitine as the internal reference substance and the content of aconitine was calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. The present results showed that there was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method with the relative average deviations less than 3.0%, and QAMS is an effective way to control the quality of herbal medicines and seems to be a convenient and accurate approach to analyze multi-composition when reference substances are unavailable.
Authors:B. Chen, L.-W. Li, Y.-J. Lin, Z.-H. Wang, and G.-D. Lu
Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is the most serious disease in the southern rice producing regions of China. The use of resistant varieties is the most economic strategy to control the disease. In this paper, a seedling inoculation method was used to evaluate rice germplasm resources for resistance to sheath blight. A total of 363 rice varieties were evaluated with a set of R. solani isolates. The results indicated that the rice varieties generally lacked resistance to R. solani, and no highly resistant/immune (HR) variety was found. However, two varieties displayed clear resistance (R) and 37 showed moderate resistance (MR) to the fungus. Overall, hybrid rice varieties have better resistance than conventional rice varieties, and among hybrid rice varieties, those with the II-32A sterile line genetic background were the most resistant. The results also indicated significant interactions between rice varieties and pathogen isolates, suggesting that an understanding of local R. solani populations is needed when recommending varieties to local growers.
Authors:J. Wang, L. Jia, W. Wei, S. Lang, P. Shao, and X. Fan
This paper develops an instrumental analytical approach for detection of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil samples using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD), and fluorescence detector (FLD). The GPC was used to remove triglycerides from edible oil samples. The extracted samples were then detected using UHPLC—DAD—FLD. In order to obtain good separation and high reproducibility, the UHPLC—DAD—FLD experimental condition was optimized. The PAHs including three groups of isomeric PAHs can be separated completely in 12 min using BEH Shield RP 18 column with a suitable gradient elution program. The mean recoveries were in the range of 73–110% with an acceptable reproducibility (RSD < 10%, n = 3). During real sample analysis, the method can decrease the chance of false positives with both DAD and FLD being used simultaneously. The results indicate that the approach is simple, easy, and acceptably reproducible, thereby showing great potential as a method for detection of fourteen PAHs contained in edible oil samples.
Authors:Y. Wang, S. Feng, X. Feng, Y. Lei, L. Cheng, Q. Xu, Z. Zhuo, and D. Xue
Yaozhou Kiln at Lidipo and Shangdian are two independent porcelain kiln groups of Yaozhou kiln series in Shanxi Province.
Both of them were consisted of some individual porcelain kilns. The samples of 20 pieces of porcelain sherds produced in Shangdian
and 43 pieces of porcelain sherds made in Lidipo sites which produced in Kin Dynasty (1115–1234 A.D.) have been collected.
The main chemical compositions in body were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The contents of trace elements were measured
using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise discriminant analysis were used to
study the provenance characteristic of these samples. The results indicated that the main components and trace elements in
the specimen can be used to reveal the provenance characteristic.
A two-year field experiment with a split-split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of soil N(0, 120 and 240 kg N·ha−1) and foliar Zn applications at different growth stages (jointing, flowering, early grain filling, and late grain filling) on Zn translocation and utilization efficiency in winter wheat grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil. Our results showed that foliar Zn application at the early grain filling stage significantly increased the Zn concentration in the grain (by 82.9% compared to control) and the Zn utilization efficiency (by 49% compared to jointing). The Zn concentration in the straw consistently increased with the timing of the foliar Zn application and was highest at late grain filling. However, the timing of the Zn application had little effect on Zn uptake in the grain and straw. A high N supply significantly increased the Zn concentration in and uptake by grain and straw, but it had little effect on the efficiency of Zn utilization. Consequently, a foliar Zn application at early grain filling causes Zn to re-translocate into grain from vegetative tissues, resulting in highly nutritional wheat grain. Finally, these practices improved the efficiency of Zn utilization in winter wheat and led to Zn-enriched straw, which may contribute to Zn recycling if it is returned to the field. The results also indicated that N nutrition is a critical factor in both the concentration and translocation of Zn in wheat.
Authors:M. Lu, B. Wang, Zh. Li, Y. Fei, L. Wei, and Sh. Gao
Antifreeze protein (AFP) can lower the freezing point by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals. In this article, the thermal
hysteresis activity (THA) of a plant AFP was measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As is shown, when the
amount of ice in the sample was less than 5% THA of this AFP reached as high as 0.35°C. The secondary structure of this AFP
was studied with circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectrum from 195to 240 nm indicated a well-defined secondary structure consisting
11% α-helix, 34%antiparallel β-sheet and 55% random coil.