Authors:Y.-E. Chen, S. Jin, Q.-S. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and C.-L. Wang
Lipopolysaccharide and b-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize and bind LPS and b-1,3-glucan. LGBP has crucial roles in innate immune defense against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In this study, LGBP functions in Portunus trituberculatus innate immunity were analyzed. First, the mRNA expression of PtLGBP in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and muscle toward three typical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulations were examined using real-time PCR. Results show that the overall trend of relative expressions of the LGBP gene in three tissues is consistent, showing up-down trend. In each group, the highest expression of the LGBP gene was at 3 and 12 h post-injection. The LGBP gene is also expressed significantly higher in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas than in the muscle. The highest level of LGBP was in the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and glucan-injected group, whereas the lowest level was in the PGN-injected group. Furthermore, bacterial agglutination assay with polyclonal antibody specifically for PtLGBP proved that the recombinant PtLGBP (designated as rPtLGBP) could exhibit obvious agglutination activity toward Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and V. alginolyticus; Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis; and fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LGBP in Portunus trituberculatus possibly served as a multi-functional PRR. In addition, LGBP is not only involved in the immune response against Gram-negative and fungi, as manifested in other invertebrates, but also has a significant role in anti-Gram-positive bacteria infection.
Authors:Z. Wang, L. Láng, A. Uhrin, O. Veisz, S. Liu, and G. Vida
The presence and frequency of the resistance gene complex
was investigated in the wheat breeding programme of the Agricultural Research Institute, Martonvásár, Hungary. A total of 226 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from Hungary and other countries were tested with an STS marker,
, to understand the distribution of the
resistance gene complex. A 150-bp PCR fragment was amplified in 64 wheat cultivars and lines with the resistance genes
, while a 229-bp fragment was detected in 162 genotypes without
. The genotypes with
accounted for 28.3% of the wheat cultivars and advanced lines tested. Among the 128 varieties and breeding lines of Martonvásár origin tested, 34 carried the
genes, with a frequency of 26.6%. The frequency of these genes was 30.6% in genotypes of other origin. The STS marker
could be used as an effective tool for the marker-assisted selection of
genes in breeding wheat cultivars with durable rust resistance.
A two-year field experiment with a split-split plot design was conducted to investigate the effects of soil N(0, 120 and 240 kg N·ha−1) and foliar Zn applications at different growth stages (jointing, flowering, early grain filling, and late grain filling) on Zn translocation and utilization efficiency in winter wheat grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil. Our results showed that foliar Zn application at the early grain filling stage significantly increased the Zn concentration in the grain (by 82.9% compared to control) and the Zn utilization efficiency (by 49% compared to jointing). The Zn concentration in the straw consistently increased with the timing of the foliar Zn application and was highest at late grain filling. However, the timing of the Zn application had little effect on Zn uptake in the grain and straw. A high N supply significantly increased the Zn concentration in and uptake by grain and straw, but it had little effect on the efficiency of Zn utilization. Consequently, a foliar Zn application at early grain filling causes Zn to re-translocate into grain from vegetative tissues, resulting in highly nutritional wheat grain. Finally, these practices improved the efficiency of Zn utilization in winter wheat and led to Zn-enriched straw, which may contribute to Zn recycling if it is returned to the field. The results also indicated that N nutrition is a critical factor in both the concentration and translocation of Zn in wheat.
Authors:F. Zhang, J. Li, X.L. Wang, W. Mao, H. Zhang, J. Guo, and J.W. Li
An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under non-shaded (100% of full sunlight) and shaded (30% of full sunlight) treatments were conducted. The allometric slopes and the intercepts were estimated using standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stems during plant ontogeny, and leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. Under shade, however, more biomass was allocated to leaves and stems. N mass allocation was also altered by shading in that more N mass was allocated to the aerial shoots, and plants accumulated less N mass when shaded. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.
Authors:L. Zhang, X. Shu, X. Wang, H. Lu, Q. Shu, and D. Wu
Five giant embryo mutants, described as
MH-gel, MH-ge2, MH-ge3, MH-ge4
, which were derived from the same indica rice
. ‘Minghui 86’ and characterized by 2.0, 1.88, 2.08, 1.93 and 1.88 times enlarged embryo than that of wild type, were selected for the current study. The mutated giant embryos were controlled by a single recessive gene, and except mutated locus with
other four loci were allelic to each other and the previous reported locus
in japonica rice
. ‘Kinmaze’. No obvious differences in physicochemical properties such as apparent amylose content (AAC), alkali spreading value (ASV), gel consistency (GC), and starch paste viscosity were observed between giant embryo mutants and wild type. Significant increases in the contents of crude lipid (LC), crude protein (PC), Vitamin B1 (V
), Vitamin B2 (V
), Vitamin E (V
), essential amino acids such as Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), and mineral elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were detected in brown rice (BR) of giant embryo mutants. The amounts of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, were similar in the BR of giant embryo mutants and wild type, and more GABA content was observed in germinated brown rice (GBR) than BR. Significant enrichments were detected in the GBR of giant embryo mutants, basically corresponding to the enlarged embryo.
Authors:L. Wang, Z. Tan, S. Meng, D. Liang, S. Ji, and Z. Hei
Fe–B ultrafine amorphous alloy particles (UFAAP) were prepared by chemical reduction of Fe3+ with NaBHO4 and confirmed to be ultrafine amorphous particles by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The specific
heat of the sample was measured by a high precision adiabatic calorimeter, and a differential scanning calorimeter was used
for thermal stability analysis. A topological structure of Fe-B atoms is proposed to explain two crystallization peaks and
a melting peak observed at T=600, 868 and 1645 K, respectively.
Authors:M. Odlyha, Q. Wang, G. M. Foster, J. de Groot, M. Horton, and L. Bozec
Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used
to characterise model tapestries, especially woven for the EC-funded project (MODHT) and to historic tapestries in royal palaces
and museums. Modulus values of woollen threads from model tapestries are reported and the effects of traditional dyeing and
mordanting processes quantified. TG, particularly of black woollen threads showed alterations in thermal stability. Tests
of creep on immersion in water and subsequent heating to 90C and on exposure to a controlled relative humidity programme
were also used to rank these effects. Modulus values of historic woollen samples were also obtained and DSC studies of model
and historic silk samples are reported together with preliminary atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of silk fibres.
Authors:M.-H. Wang, Z.-C. Tan, Q. Shi, L.-X. Sun, and T. Zhang
heat capacities of 2-benzoylpyridine were measured with an automated adiabatic
calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 340 K. The melting point,
molar enthalpy, ΔfusHm,
and entropy, ΔfusSm,
of fusion of this compound were determined to be 316.49±0.04 K, 20.91±0.03
kJ mol–1 and 66.07±0.05 J mol–1
K–1, respectively. The purity of the compound
was calculated to be 99.60 mol% by using the fractional melting technique.
The thermodynamic functions (HT–H298.15) and (ST–S298.15) were calculated based
on the heat capacity measurements in the temperature range of 80–340
K with an interval of 5 K. The thermal properties of the compound were further
investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). From the DSC curve,
the temperature corresponding to the maximum evaporation rate, the molar enthalpy
and entropy of evaporation were determined to be 556.3±0.1 K, 51.3±0.2
kJ mol–1 and 92.2±0.4 J K–1
mol–1, respectively, under the experimental
Authors:M. Lu, B. Wang, Zh. Li, Y. Fei, L. Wei, and Sh. Gao
Antifreeze protein (AFP) can lower the freezing point by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals. In this article, the thermal
hysteresis activity (THA) of a plant AFP was measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As is shown, when the
amount of ice in the sample was less than 5% THA of this AFP reached as high as 0.35°C. The secondary structure of this AFP
was studied with circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectrum from 195to 240 nm indicated a well-defined secondary structure consisting
11% α-helix, 34%antiparallel β-sheet and 55% random coil.