Authors:H. Zhang, X. Yu, H. Sun, Y. Liu, Z. Nan, C. Lu, M. Ru, G. Mai, Y. Wang, and Z. Li
The power vs. time curves of the promoter bacteria of a nutrient drug were determined by using a 2277 Thermal Activity Monitor (Sweden). A new experimental model of bacterial growth were established. The growth rate constant, heat output and optimum concentration of specific promoter bacterial of nutrient drug were calculated.
Authors:D-Y Zhao, Q-Q Qi, X Long, X Li, F-X Chen, Y-B Yu, and X-L Zuo
Impaired intestinal barrier function has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study aimed to describe the intestinal ultrastructural findings in the intestinal mucosal layer of IBS-D patients.
In total, 10 healthy controls and 10 IBS-D patients were analyzed in this study. The mucosa of each patient’s rectosigmoid colon was first assessed by confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE); next, biopsied specimens of these sites were obtained. Intestinal tissues of IBS-D patients and healthy volunteers were examined to observe cellular changes by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
CLE showed no visible epithelial damage or inflammatory changes in the colonic mucosa of IBS-D compared with healthy volunteers. On transmission electron microscopic examination, patients with IBS-D displayed a larger apical intercellular distance with a higher proportion of dilated (>20 nm) intercellular junctional complexes, which was indicative of impaired mucosal integrity. In addition, microvillus exfoliation, extracellular vesicle as well as increased presence of multivesicular bodies were visible in IBS-D patients. Single epithelial cells appeared necrotic, as characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic swelling, and presence of autolysosome. A significant association between bowel habit, frequency of abdominal pain, and enlarged intercellular distance was found.
This study showed ultrastructural alterations in the architecture of intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular junctional complexes in IBS-D patients, potentially representing a pathophysiological mechanism in IBS-D.
Authors:L. Qiang-Guo, H. Yi, L. Xu, Y. Li-Juan, X. Sheng-Xiong, Y. De-Jun, and L. Yi
The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard
molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at
298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction
was determined to be ΔrHmΘ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be ΔfHmΘ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.
Authors:Xiufang Zhang, G. Yang, Y. Liu, W. Yu, K. Pan, Ruixiang Li, and M. Zhu
Prorocentrum donghaiense caused large-scale red tides off Chinese coast in recent years. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was carried out for this dinoflagellate in order to identify the genes involved in its proliferation and death. A cDNA library was constructed for P. donghaiense at late exponential growth phase, and 308 groups of EST were generated, which include 36 contigs and 272 singletons. Among 22 groups showed homologies with known genes, 2 matched significantly with caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are 2 key proteins involved in programmed cell death. Their identification evidenced preliminarily the induction of PCD in aging P. donghaiense. The identified included also calmodulin and protein phosphatase, two proteins involved in diverse cell processes including PCD by binding to or modifying others.
Authors:G.P. Li, D. Zhou, L.N. Kan, Y.W. Wu, J.F. Fan, and J. Ouyang
The inhibitory effects of phytic acid (PA) on the browning of fresh-cut chestnuts and the associated mechanisms of PA on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were investigated. The enzymatic browning of chestnut surfaces and interiors was suppressed by soaking shelled and sliced chestnuts in a PA solution. The specific activities of PPO and POD extracted from chestnuts declined due to inhibition by PA. PA was determined to be a competitive inhibitor of both PPO and POD by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The binding modes of PA with PPO and POD were analysed by AutoDock 4.2.
Authors:B. Patra, S. Bera, S. Molchanoff, Y. Wang, J. Yang, and C. Li
We described the structure of two different morphological gall types, subglobular and fusiform in Ephedra distachya. The gall midge, Xerephedromyia ustjurtensis Fedotova (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces both types of gall formation. Galls are persistent resinous stem swellings usually subglobular and rarely fusiform in shape. Mature galls are solid, hard, indehiscent woody structure with many circular exit holes on their surface. Galls are anatomically similar, but different from the unaffected stems. The mean number of larval cavities varied significantly between subglobular and fusiform galls, while variation of diameter of the larval cavities was not significant between the gall morphotypes. We documented significant (p < 0.05) variation in total gall densities between sexes of Ephedra distachya, where male plants (mean = 0.89 ± 0.15) supporting higher gall densities than females (mean = 0.36±0.04). Total gall densities varied significantly (p < 0.05) among three sample populations of E. distachya and exhibited an increasing trend from mesic to xeric sites along an altitudinal gradient. Gall size also varied between plant sexes and among sites.
Authors:X. Li, S. Lan, Y. Zhang, L. Lu, S. Liu, L. Wang, and S. Rajaram
Abiotic stresses like salinity and abnormally cold environments cause significant yield losses in many crops including wheat. Therefore, concerted efforts are being made by breeders to develop new varieties with salt and cold tolerance to ensure stable yields over varied environments. This study was undertaken to screen six hundred and seventy-seven accessions of international wheat genetic resources to identify lines with high level of tolerance to salinity and cold environments. Based on the results of two years study in different agroecological locations, 51 accessions were classified as salt tolerant and 115 accessions were classified as cold tolerant. Of these, 35 accessions had good agronomic characteristics. Also, there were 39 genotypes with combined tolerance to cold as well as salinity. Thus, there were good lines which can be used directly or as parents for breeding wheat varieties for wide adaptation and high yield. Further analysis of the data showed that early genotypes had good cold tolerance but a poor salt tolerance. It was also observed that small number of both test spikelet and spikelet, short spike length and good seed-plump were positively associated with cold tolerance. Therefore, maturity and spike traits should be taken into considered when selecting wheat lines for wide adaptation breeding.
Authors:L. Ma, P. Xiao, J. Cai, X. Li, Z. Ji, Y. Xia, C. Yang, and J. Bao
Uniformity in the height of main stem and tillers is a key factor affecting ideal plant type, a key component in super high-yielding rice breeding. An understanding of the genetic basis of the panicle layer uniformity may thus contribute to breeding varieties with good plant type and high yield. In the present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population, derived from a cross between
rice variety Zhai-Ye-Qing 8 (ZYQ8) and
rice variety Jing-Xi 17 (JX17) was used to analyze quantitative trait loci (QTL) for panicle layer uniformity related traits. Six, four and three QTL were detected for the highest panicle height (HPH), lowest panicle height (LPH) and panicle layer dis-uniformity (PLD), respectively. qHPH-1-1 and qPLD-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 1. The JX17 allele(s) of these QTL increased HPH and PLD by 2.57 and 1.26 cm, respectively. Similarly, qPLD-7 and qHPH-7 were located at the same interval on chromosome 7, where the ZYQ8 allele(s) increased HPH and PLD by 3.74 and 1.96 cm, respectively. These four QTL were unfavourable for panicle layer uniformity improvement because a decrease of the PLD was accompanied by decrease of the plant height. qPLD-6 and qLPH-6-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 6, however here the JX17 allele(s) increased LPH, but decreased PLD, suggesting that this QTL was favourable for improvement of panicle layer uniformity. The markers identified in this study are potential for marker assisted breeding for the improvement of the panicle layer uniformity and ideal plant type.
Authors:L.H. Feng, Y.Q. Li, G.J. Sun, and X.Z. Zhao
The objective of this work was to research the antibacterial effects of orange pigment, which was separated from Monascus pigments, against Staphylococcus aureus. The increase of the diameter of inhibition zone treated with orange pigment indicated that orange pigment had remarkable antibacterial activities against S. aureus. Orange pigment (10 mg ml−1) had a strong destructive effect on the membrane and structure of S. aureus by the analysis of scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) further demonstrated that the cell membrane was seriously damaged by orange pigment, which resulted in the leakage of protein from S. aureus cells. A significant decrease in the synthesis of DNA was also seen in S. aureus cells exposed to 10 mg ml−1 orange pigment. All in all, orange pigment showed excellent antibacterial effects against S. aureus.
This study was conducted to assess the effects of 2,4-epibrassionolide (EBR) on mold decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer and its capability to activate biochemical defense reactions in postharvest peaches. The treatment of EBR at 5 μM possessed the optimum effectiveness on inhibiting the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit among all treatments. The EBR treatment significantly up-regulated the expression levels of a set of defense-related enzymes and PR genes that included PpCHI, PpGns1, PpPAL, PpNPR1, PpPR1 and PpPR4 as well as led to an enhancement for biosynthesis of phenolics and lignins in peaches during the incubation at 20 °C. Interestingly, the EBR-treated peaches exhibited more striking expressions of PR genes and accumulation of antifungal compounds upon inoculation with the pathogen, indicating a priming defense could be activated by EBR. On the other hand, 5 μM EBR exhibited direct toxicity on fungal proliferation of R. stolonifer in vitro. Thus, we concluded that 5 μM EBR inhibited the Rhizopus rot in peach fruit probably by a direct inhibitory effect on pathogen growth and an indirect induction of a priming resistance. These findings provided a potential alternative for control of fungal infection in peaches during the postharvest storage.