Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.
High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins associated with bread-making quality in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). Variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is scare. Diploid Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (2n = 2x = 14, AmAm) is the first cultivated wheat. In the present study, allelic variations at the Glu-A1mx locus were systematically investigated in 197 T. monococcum ssp. monococcum accessions. Out of the 8 detected Glu-A1mx alleles, 5 were novel, including Glu-A1m-b, Glu-A1m-c, Glu-A1m-d, Glu-A1m-g, and Glu-A1m-h. This diversity is higher than that of common wheat. Compared with 1Ax1 and 1Ax2*, which are present in common wheat, these alleles contained three deletions/insertions as well as some single nucleotide polymorphism variations that might affect the elastic properties of wheat flour. New variations in T. monococcum probably occurred after the divergence between A and Am and are excluded in common wheat populations. These allelic variations could be used as novel resources to further improve wheat quality.
Aegiolops kotschyi cytoplasmic male sterile system often results in part of haploid plants in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To elucidate the origin of haploid, 235 wheat microsatellite (SSR) primers were randomly selected and screened for polymorphism between haploid (2n = 3x = 21 ABD) and its parents, male-sterile line YM21 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD) and male fertile restorer YM2 (2n = 6x = 42 AABBDD). About 200 SSR markers yielded clear bands from denatured PAGE, of which 180 markers have identifiable amplification patterns, and 20 markers (around 8%) resulted in different amplification products between the haploid and the restorer, YM2. There were no SSR markers that were found to be distinguishable between the haploid and the male sterile line YM21. In addition, different distribution of HMW-GS between endosperm and seedlings from the same seeds further confirmed that the haploid genomes were inherited from the maternal parent. After haploidization, 1.7% and 0.91% of total sites were up- and down-regulated exceeding twofold in the shoot and the root of haploid, respectively, and most of the differentially expressed loci were up/down-regulated about twofold. Out of the sensitive loci in haploid, 94 loci in the shoot, 72 loci in the root can be classified into three functional subdivisions: biological process, cellular component and molecular function, respectively.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, J. P. Halda, C. Roux, D. K. Upreti, F. Schumm, G. K. Mishra, S. Nayaka, E. Farkas, J. S. Park, B. G. Lee, D. Liu, J.-J. Woo, and J.-S. Hur
Eighteen new to science species, i.e.: 13 taxa from South Korea (Astroplaca loekoesiana S. Y. Kondr., E. Farkas, J.-J. Woo et J.-S. Hur, Buellia ulleungdoensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Candelariella hakulinenii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Flavoplaca laszloana S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur, Lichenostigma epiporpidiae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Mikhtomia geumohdoensis S. Y. Kondr., Liu D. et J.-S. Hur, Orientophila dodongensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Physcia orientostellaris S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Placynthiella hurii S. Y. Kondr. et L. Lőkös, Protoparmeliopsis kopachevskae S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Psoroglaena sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur, Vezdaea poeltiana S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös, J. Halda et J.-S. Hur), two species from India (Rusavskia indica S. Y. Kondr. et D. K. Upreti, and R. upretii S. Y. Kondr., G. K. Mishra et S. Nayaka), and two species from Atlantic Europe, i.e.: Spain and Portugal (Xanthoria schummii S. Y. Kondr. and X. lapalmaensis F. Schumm et S. Y. Kondr.), as well as a lichenicolous fungus Leptosphaeria Oxneriae Cl. Roux et S. Y. Kondr. from Asia (Russia and India) are described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa. Forty species of lichen forming and lichenicolous fungi (i.e.: Acarospora cf. rufescens, Agonimia allobata, A. aff. blumii, Anema decipiens, Anisomeridium aff. albisedum, Bacidia laurocerasi, Cercidospora aff. epipolytropa, C. aff. lobothallia, Dictyocatenulata alba, Fuscopannaria dissecta, Lecanora ussuriensis, Lecidella aff. carpatica, Lemmopsis arnoldiana, Leptosphaeria crozalsii, Lichenostigma cf. bolacinae, L. aff. rupicolae, Lichinella stipatula, L. cribellifera, L. iodopulchra, L. aff. myriospora, Melaspilea proximella, Micarea alabastrites, Opegrapha aff. thelotrematis, Orientophila leucerythrella, Pectenia plumbea, Placynthium tantaleum, Porpidia flavicunda, Psorula rufonigra, Pyrenocarpon aff. thelostomum, Pyrenodesmia duplicata, Pyrenopsis aff. haematina, Ramboldia haematites, Rhizoplaca subdiscrepans, Rimularia gibbosa, Rinodina oxydata, Staurothele frustulenta, Stigmidium cf. clauzadei, Strigula australiensis, Thelenella luridella, Vezdaea leprosa) are for the first time recorded for Korea. Additional locality records for South Korea (74 species) and China (3 species) are also given.
Four new combinations, i.e.: Orientophila chejuensis (for Caloplaca chejuensis S. Y. Kondr. et Hur), Orientophila diffluens (for Lecanora diffluens Hue), Orientophila leucerythrella (for Lecanora leucerythrella Nyl.), and Pyrenodesmia duplicata (for Lecanora duplicata Vain.) are also proposed.