Authors:S. Yu, A. Ren, J. Cheng, X. Song, C. Chen, and X. Wang
Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked
samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values
and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at
high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences
of FA/Co2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption.
Authors:J. Song, R. Hu, B. Kang, Y. Lei, F. Li, and K. Yu
[Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was prepared by mixing the aqueous solution of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one and cadmium carbonate in excess. The single crystal
structure was determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2/c with crystal parameters
of a=2.1229(3) nm, b=0.6261(8) nm, c=2.1165(3) nm, β=90.602(7), V=2.977(6) nm3, Z=4, Dc=2.055 gcm−3, μ=15.45 cm−1, F(000)=1824, λ(MoKα)=0.071073 nm. The final R is 0.0282. Based on the results of thermal analysis, the thermal decomposition mechanism of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was derived. From measurements of the enthalpy of solution of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O in water at 298.15 K, the standard enthalpy of formation, lattice energy, lattice enthalpy and standard enthalpy of dehydration
have been determined as -(1747.84.8), -2394, -2414 and 313.6 kJ mol−1 respectively.
Authors:Y.-J. Song, S.-H. Meng, F.-D. Wang, C.-X. Sun, and Z.-C. Tan
Polyimide BTDA-ODA sample was prepared by polycondensation or step-growth polymerization method. Its low temperature heat capacities were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range between 80 and 400 K. No thermal anomaly was found in this temperature range. A DSC experiment was conducted in the temperature region from 373 to 673 K. There was not phase change or decomposition phenomena in this temperature range. However two glass transitions were found at 420.16 and 564.38 K. Corresponding heat capacity increments were 0.068 and 0.824 J g–1 K–1, respectively. To study the decomposition characteristics of BTDA-ODA, a TG experiment was carried out and it was found that this polyimide started to decompose at ca 673 K.
Authors:L. Yang, Li Sun, Fen Xu, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, Z. Zhao, C. Song, R. Wu, and Riko Ozao
The microcalorimetric method has been used to study the effects of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium on the E. coli growth. The results revealed that these two cephalosporins may alter the metabolic way of the E. coli. Moreover, the lethal doses of cefpiramide and ceftizoxime sodium are 2.000 and 0.2000 μg mL−1, respectively. Combining with the relationships between growth rate constant (k), the maximum power output (Pm), the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tm) and cephalosporins concentration (C), one can draw the conclusion that the ceftizoxime sodium has a stronger inhibition effects on the growth of E. coli than that of cefpiramide and they both have the possibility to induce the drug fever.
Authors:Q. Chen, J. Song, W.P. Du, L.Y. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, M. Zhang, and G.R. Yu
Chinese endemic wheat landraces possess unique morphological features and desirable traits, useful for wheat breeding. It is important to clarify the relationship among these landraces. In this study, 21 accessions of the four Chinese endemic wheat landrace species were investigated using single-copy genes encoding plastid Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk-1) in order to estimate their phylogenetic relationship. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian, and TCS network and gene flow values. The A and B genome sequences from the Pgk-1 loci indicated that three accessions of Triticum petropavlovskyi were clustered into the same subclade, and the T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and the Sichuan white wheat accessions were grouped into a separate subclade. Based on the Acc-1 gene, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense were grouped into one subclade in the A genome; the B genome from T. petropavlovskyi and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum, and the Sichuan white wheat complex and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum were grouped in the same clades. The D genome of T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense clustered with T. petropavlovskyi. Our findings suggested that (1) T. petropavlovskyi is distantly related to the Sichuan white wheat complex; (2) T. petropavlovskyi, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense are closely related; (3) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum is closely related to T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense and the Sichuan white wheat complex; and (4) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum may be an ancestor of Chinese endemic wheat landraces.
Authors:N. Zhang, R.Q. Pan, J.J. Liu, X.L. Zhang, Q.N. Su, F. Cui, C.H. Zhao, L.Q. Song, J. Ji, and J.M. Li
Plants with deficiency in Gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway are sensitive to exogenous GA3, while those with deficiency in GAs signaling pathway are insensitive to exogenous GA3. Thus, exogenous GA3 test is often used to verify whether the reduced height (Rht) gene is involved in GAs biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the present study, we identified the genetic factors responsive to exogenous GA3 at the seedling stage of common wheat and analyzed the response of the plant height related quantitative trait loci (QTL) to GA3 to understand the GAs pathways the Rht participated in. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between KN9204 and J411 with different response to exogenous GA3 were used to screen QTL for the sensitivity of coleoptile length (SCL) and the sensitivity of seedling plant height (SSPH) to exogenous GA3. Two additive QTL and two pairs of epistatic QTL for SCL were identified, meanwhile, two additive QTL and three pairs of epistatic QTL for SSPH were detected. For the adult plant height (PH) investigated in two environments, six additive QTL were identified. Three QTL qScl-4B, qSsph-4B and qPh-4B were mapped in one cluster near the functional marker Rht-B1b. When PH were conditional on SSPH, the absolute additive effect value of qPh-4B and qPh-6B were reduced, suggesting that the Rhts in both two QTL were insensitive to exogenous GA3, while the additive effect values of qPh-2B, qPh-3A, qPh-3D and qPh-5A were not significantly changed, indicating that the Rhts in these QTL were sensitive to exogenous GA3, or they were not expressed at the seedling stage.
Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.
Authors:Z.-C. Tan, B. Xue, S.-W. Lu, S.-H. Meng, X.-H. Yuan, and Y.-J. Song
The heat capacities of fenpropathrin in the temperature range from 80 to 400 K were measured with a precise automatic adiabatic calorimeter. The fenpropathrin sample was prepared with the purity of 0.9916 mole fraction. A solid—liquid fusion phase transition was observed in the experimental temperature range. The melting point, Tm, enthalpy and entropy of fusion,
fusSm, were determined to be 322.48±0.01 K, 18.57±0.29 kJ mol–1 and 57.59±1.01 J mol–1 K–1, respectively. The thermodynamic functions of fenpropathrin, H(T)—H(298.15), S(T)—S(298.15) and G(T)—G(298.15), were reported with a temperature interval of 5 K. The TG analysis under the heating rate of 10 K min–1 confirmed that the thermal decomposition of the sample starts at ca. 450 K and terminates at ca. 575 K. The maximum decomposition rate was obtained at 558 K. The purity of the sample was determined by a fractional melting method.
Authors:B. Yan, H. X. Ma, N. N. Zhao, T. Mai, J. R. Song, F. Q. Zhao, and R. Z. Hu
As N-2′,4′-dinitrophenyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine (DNPDNAZ) is an important derivative of 3,3-dinitroazetidine, its thermal behavior was studied under 0.1 and 2 MPa by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results of this study show that there are one melting process and two exothermic decomposition processes. Its kinetic parameters of the intense exothermic decomposition process were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves. The activation energy and the mechanism function under 0.1 MPa are 167.26 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively, and the said parameters under 2 MPa are 169.30 kJ mol−1 and f(α) = 3(1 + α)2/3[(1 + α)1/3− 1]−1/2, respectively. The specific heat capacity of DNPDNAZ was determined using a continuous Cp mode of micro-calorimeter. Using the relationship between Cp and T with the thermal decomposition parameters, the time of the thermal decomposition from initialization to thermal explosion (adiabatic time-to-explosion, tTIAD), the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT), thermal ignition temperature (TTIT), critical temperatures of thermal explosion (Tb), and half-life (t1/2) were obtained to evaluate its thermal safety under different pressures.