Wheat cultivation is of great significance in North-western plains of India and the crop was hitherto considered as almost free from serious insect attack. Recently, Pink stem borer (PSB), Sesamia inferens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has emerged as a new pest and is likely to pose serious threat to the successful cultivation of wheat in the North-western plains of India under largely adopted rice-wheat cropping system. Because of the paucity of data on the developmental biology of PSB on wheat crop regarding this emerging problem of insect damage, studies were initiated on biology of PSB under field as well as screenhouse conditions during seasons of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. This is the first report on biology of PSB on wheat which indicated that the pest was able to survive well/build up populations on wheat and able to complete its life cycle. It laid eggs either at the base of wheat plant near to soil level or on soil-surface or in the left over stubble of rice plants. Eggs hatched within 7.40±0.08 days and the mean larval duration was 68.52±1.55 days. In the course of development, it passed through 8 larval instars and pupation took place near or within the left over rice stubble. Pupal period was 36.05±0.36 days in male while 37.78±0.17 days in female. The survival of adult moths was 5.31±0.26 days in male while 6.61±0.26 days in female. The mean fecundity was 118.38±11.93 eggs and 89.15 per cent of eggs hatched. The total life cycle took 116.92±2.17 and 119.95±2.05 days in males and females, respectively.
Authors:M.J. Ansari, R. Kumar, K. Singh, and H.S. Dhaliwal
Diploid wheat T. monococcum L. is a model plant for wheat functional genomics. A soft glume mutant was identified during manual screening of EMS-treated M2 progenies of a T. monococcum accession pau14087. The seeds in the mature spike of the mutant could be easily threshed manually. The soft glume mutant with high sterility, tapering and broader spikes had also tougher rachis than the wild type parent. Genetic analysis of crosses of the mutant with wild type indicated that the mutant was monogenic recessive. To map the soft glume mutant, a mapping population was developed by crossing the soft glume mutant with wild Triticum boeoticum acc. pau 5088, having tough glumes and hard threshing. The soft glume mutant was mapped between SSR markers Xgwm473 and Xbarc69 on 7AmL chromosome of T. monococcum, with a genetic distance of 1.8 cM and 8.3 cM, respectively. The soft glum mutant mapped on 7AmL, being distinct from a previously mapped soft glume mutant in wheat, has been designated as sog2. The work on fine mapping of sog2 gene is in progress.
Authors:Sujoy Biswas, K. Hareendran, D. Singh, J. Sharma, and S. Roy
Extraction behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid medium is investigated using organo-phosphorous extractant, tri(butoxyethyl)
phosphate in n-paraffin at room temperature (27 ± 1 °C). The effect of diluents, nitric acid concentration as well as extractant concentration
on extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) are evaluated. Extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid medium proceeds via solvation
mechanism. Slope analysis technique showed the formation of neutral complexes of the type of UO2(NO3)2·2TBEP and Th(NO3)4·3TBEP with U(VI) and Th(IV) respectively in the organic phase. The FTIR data showed shifting of P=O stretching frequency
from 1,282 to 1,217 cm−1 indicating the strong complexation of P=O group with UO22+ ions in the organic phase. Effect of stripping agents, other metal ions and their separation with respect to U(VI) extraction
has also been investigated.
Authors:J. Kumar, A. Kumar, M. Kumar, S.K. Singh, and L. Singh
In order to study the inheritance pattern of morpho-physiological traits in bread wheat, a 10×10 diallel cross, excluding reciprocals was made and grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Observations were recorded on Days to 75% flowering (DF), Days to maturity (DM), Duration of reproductive phase (DRP), Plant height (cm) (PH), Effective tiller/plant (TLS), No. of spikelets per spike (SLS), No. of grains per spike (GS), Grain weight per spike (g) (GW), Spike length (cm) (SL), Biological yield per plant (g) (BY), Harvest index (%) (HI), 1000-Grain weight (g) (TGW), Spike density (SD), Canopy temperature depression (°C) (CTD), Chlorophyll intensity (%) (CI), Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) (CF), Protein content (%) (PC), Grain yield per plant (g) (GY). Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all traits. The resulted 45 F1s and their F2s used for study the nature of gene for grain yield and its contributing traits in bread wheat. The result indicated that considerable gene action and average degree of dominance respond to achieving significant result for grain yield and its component traits. In both the generations F1s and F2s, grain yield per plant (g) was governed by non-additive gene action based on combining ability analysis, (σ2 g/σ2 s)0.5 [GCA and SCA variance ratio] and (H1/D)0.5 [Degree of dominance] were exhibited over dominance type average degree of dominance for grain yield and its component traits in both generations. Genetic analyses of the traits confirm the involvement of both additive and non-additive gene effects in governing the inheritance.
Authors:M. Alrakabi, G. Singh, A. Bhalla, S. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Srivastava, B. Rai, N. Singh, J. Shahi, and D. Mehta
The elemental concentration of uranium in the samples collected from the ground water and the canal water in the Bathinda
district of Punjab state, India, have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. The residues obtained after drying
the water samples were analysed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of Mo-anode X-ray tube
equipped with selective absorbers as an excitation source and an Si(Li) detector. The uranium concentration values in significant
fraction of the shallow ground water samples from the hand pumps is found to be above the permissible level of 15 ppb recommended
by World Health Organisation for the drinking water, and its values in the canal water samples are below 5 ppb. To investigate
the flyash from the coal-fired thermal power plants as a possible source of ground water contamination, the water samples
collected from the surroundings of the power plants and the flyash samples were also analyzed. The results rule out flyash
as a source of uranium contamination. Agrochemical processes occurring in the calcareous soils in the region are the favoured
potential source of uranium contamination of the ground water.
Authors:S. Omanwar, J. R. Rao, G. Butchaiah, S. H. Basagoudanavar, and R. K. Singh
The mechanically transmitted haemoflagellate,Trypanosoma evansicauses 'surra', a wasting disease of domestic animals and is highly endemic in distribution in Southeast Asia. The detection ofT. evansiis important for improving the epizootiological and animal health status of the region. The specificity and sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers constructed fromT. evansirepetitive DNA sequences were studied in the present investigation. Using the assay, it was possible to amplify template DNA ofT. evansiderived from buffaloes, camels and horses to a threshold sensitivity level of 0.5 pg and to detect DNA from as few as five organisms in 10 (l crude blood samples. Following experimental infection of calves with 5 × 105T. evansi, positive signals could be observed as early as 12 h post-infection. DNAs from two common haemoflagellates of cattle,Babesia bigeminaandTheileria annulatawere not amplified with the primers.
Authors:R. Parveen, F. J. Ahmad, Z. Iqbal, M. Singh, Y. T. Kamal, and S. Ahmad
Andrographolide and betulinic acid are the terpenoids having potential anti-cancer activity. The cytotoxicity activity of both the drugs was carried out separately and in combination on liver cancer HepG2 cell lines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of these two terpenoids as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, which was applied for quantification in nanoformulation. The retention time by HPLC and retardation factor by HPTLC for andrographolide and betulinic acid were found to be 2.2 and 6.6 min, and 0.24 ± 0.01 and 0.66 ± 0.01, respectively. Both the methods were validated for accuracy, precision, repeatability, robustness, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The content of andrographolide and betulinic acid in nanoformulation was found to be 96.0% and 98.0% by HPLC and 96.59% and 98.33% by HPTLC, respectively, of labelled claim.
Authors:S. D’souza, N. Nathawat, J. Nair, P. Radha Krishna, N. Ramaswamy, G. Singh, and M. Sahu
Primary photochemical reactions and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes chloroplastic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in water-stressed pearl millet (
L. cv. HHB-67) plants sprayed with the thiol compounds dithiothreitol (DTT), thioglycolic acid (TGA) and thiourea (TU) and the thiol modifiers 5,5′-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) at the earhead emergence stage (47 days after sowing, DAS), together with a control. Sampling was done at 54 and 67 days after sowing. Photosystem I and II (PS I and II) activities (ferricyanide site) were found to increase in plants sprayed with TU, TGA and DTT at both stages (54 and 67 DAS), but a reduction in PS II activity (DCQ Site) compared with the control was caused by NEM (66.66%) and DTNB (27.77%) at 54 DAS. A similar decrease in the activity of PS II (ferricyanide site) was found at 67 DAS for DTNB (55.55%). The chloroplastic SOD activity increased in chloroplasts isolated from leaves sprayed with thiol compounds at both sampling stages, except for NEM at 54 and 67 DAS. The activities of GR and GST in the leaves were higher in thiol-treated plants than in the control at 54 and 67 DAS, while the lowest GR activity was seen for the sulphydryl modifiers (DTNB and NEM) in leaves at 54 DAS. The experimental data suggest an enhancement in the primary photochemistry and antioxidant enzyme activities of water-stressed pearl millet in response to foliar spraying with thiol compounds.
Authors:K. Pramod, U. K. Ilyas, M. Singh, Y. T. Kamal, S. Ahmad, S. H. Ansari, and J. Ali
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the quantification of eugenol from nanostructured drug delivery systems was successfully developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of n-hexane:acetone (7:3, v/v), and the densitometric scanning was performed in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The method was valid with respect to linearity and range, accuracy, precision, specificity, detection limit (DL), and quantitation limit (QL). The linearity of the method was established by a correlation coefficient value of 0.9930 ± 0.0013. The precision was tested by checking intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (intermediate precision) variations. The method was established to be precise by low relative standard deviation (RSD) values for different concentration of eugenol. The results of the recovery studies of eugenol from preanalyzed samples demonstrated the accuracy of the method. The specificity of the developed method for the analysis of eugenol in the nanoemulsion gel and nanoparticles samples was confirmed by comparing the spectra obtained in standard and sample analysis. The DL and QL were determined to be 31.41 and 95.17 ng band−1, respectively, for the HPTLC method. The forced degradation studies revealed on eugenol established the effectiveness of the developed and validated method. The developed and validated HPTLC method was found to be a stability-indicating one, as indicated by the results of forced degradation studies, for its use during the accelerated stability studies of the nanoemulsion gels and nanoparticles of eugenol.
Authors:A. Niranjan, J. Barthwal, A. Lehri, D. P. Singh, R. Govindrajan, A. K. S. Rawat, and D. V. Amla
Artemisia pallens L. (Compositae) is used in Indian traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus, jaundice, hysteria, body pain, and bacterial and fungal infections. A major cause of a variety of diseases is oxidative stress which is reduced by antioxidants such as polyphenols. These secondary metabolites are generally ubiquitous in plants and extensively used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. In this study a simple and sensitive HPLC-UV-MS-MS-based method was developed for separation, identification, and quantification of polyphenols, for example gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, caffeic, and ferulic acids, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol. Amounts of polyphenols detected in 50% methanol-water extracts of the plant varied from 0.005% (kaempferol) to 0.24% (protocatechuic acid). Separation of the polyphenols was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 with a mobile phase prepared from 1% aqueous with acetic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min−1. The phenolic compounds were detected by UV absorption at 254 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, specificity, selectivity, and compound stability. Results from intra and inter-day validation (n = 6) showed the method was efficient and rapid. The optimized method was applied to extracts of A. pallens for identification and quantification of the polyphenols. The reference standards and their presence in A. pallens were confirmed by mass spectrometry.