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  • Author or Editor: L. Bakos x
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Abstract  

The possibility of using characteristic X-rays from radioactive elements activated with neutron generator has been investigated with particular emphasis on /n, n/, /n, 2n/, /n, p/ and /n, / reactions. X-rays have been emitted from nuclei by electron capture or internal transition processes. The products of six elements seem to be usable for analytical purposes.

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Abstract  

Loaded and unloaded polyurethane foams were examined as a preconcentration matrix in combination with neutron activation analysis. The structure of the foamed polymer is not damaged by short irradiation periods. However the foam skeleton degraded after irradiations for one hour or longer in a neutron flux of 3·1013 n ·cm−2·s−1. The presence of tin as a major impurity in the polyether-type foam has been detected. This may affect the sensitivity of determination of the relatively short lived isotopes of the elements collected on the foam. On the other hand the polyester-type foam was found to contain only very low amounts of tin. Antimony, indium, gold and mercury collected on the foams were determined with reasonable accuracy.

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Ethanol recovery from aqueous fermentation broth by extraction using oleic acid with simultaneous esterification by lipase enzyme was studied. To determine the optimal conditions for the complex process, the ternary system was characterised; binodal curves and tie lines of (ethanol+oleic acid+water) system were determined. Enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid was carried out and resulted in higher than 50% conversion with simultaneous reduction of ethanol content in the broth. Finally, the effect of the ester product (ethyl oleate) on the distribution of ethanol was determined.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis, gamma-ray spectrometry, particle sizing and photography of the corrosion products were used to qualify the constructional materials and primary coolants. The investigations related to: characterization of the construction materials of the primary circuit, circulated washing, hot conditioning, physical and energetic start up. The aim of the measurements was to study the cleanness of the primary circuit from assembling up to energetic start up and to follow closely the variation in the amount and the removing of the mechanical contaminants and corrosion products depending on the technological parameters.

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Abstract  

Activities of 17 radionuclides, induced in the human body by the activation of 14 elements with thermal neutrons, were calculated. Resulting dependences of these activities on the activation time are shown in graphs.

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Six pieces of grafts, 6.5 mm in diameter, 20 mm in length, were taken from each of 170 cadaver hindlimbs, using the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea for harvesting. The age of the horses varied between 4 months and 23 years. 30 limbs under the age of 12 years were selected for transplantation. Three of six grafts were transplanted into the medial femoral condyle using different combinations of tunnel depth and dilation. With ageing, a significant decline in transplantability was detected. In general, mosaicplasty cannot be recommended in horses above 11 years. Based on a previous clinical case (Bodo et al., 2000), a good surface alignment was indeed achieved with a combination of graft length drilling and dilation in most cases. However, the occasional entrapment of cartilage debris under the graft prevented perfect alignment in the present cadaver study in 27% of the grafts transplanted in this manner. Since the protrusion of grafts never exceeded 1.5 mm, we conclude that drilling 3–5 mm deeper than graft length with graft length deep dilation can avoid disadvantageous protrusion of the transplanted hyaline cartilage caps, achieving bone decompression at the same time.

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