Authors:L. Zhao, L. Robinson, E. Mackey, R. Paul, and R. Greenberg
A previous study on the determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt gamma activation
analysis (CNPGAA) demonstrates that the results of numerous cattail samples showed favorable comparison to results from an
elemental analyzer (EA) for C and N. However, the results for P overestimated the results from a UV-VIS spectrophotometer
because of the interference of chlorine existing in cattail collected from an estuarine environment. To compare to CNPGAA,
a method for the determination of C, N, and P in cattail using thermal neutron prompt gamma activation analysis (TNPGAA) has
been developed in the TNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and evaluated through the
analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs).
Authors:L. Zhao, L. Robinson, R. L. Paul, R. R. Greenberg, and S. L. Miao
A method for the determination of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in cattail using cold neutron prompt-gamma activation analysis (CNPGAA) has been developed and evaluated through the analysis of standard reference materials (SRM). After extensive preparation, approximately 400 mg cattail samples from the lower Apalachicola River floodplain were irradiated in the CNPGAA facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The results of numerous field samples and two standard reference materials using the nuclear method show favorable comparison to results obtained by a CHNS/O analyzer.
Authors:J. L. Zhao, L. Zou, L. Y. Zhong, L. X. Peng, P. L. Ying, M. L. Tan, and G. Zhao
This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.
The thermal behavior of rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L. by different methods and conditions have been investigated using TG and DTG. The results showed that every sample had
different mass loss, curve shape, and peak location related to varied extraction technology. The TG-DTG characteristics of
the rutin sample extracted by alkali-dissolution and acid-sedimentation with the solution adjusted to pH 9 and simply borax
as stabilizer were highly similar to that of standard rutin, with the maximal purity determined by spectrophotometry. Therefore,
the TG-DTG patterns could be served to characterize rutin extracted from the buds of Sophora japonica L.
Authors:Jungang Gao, X. Zhang, L. Huo, and H. Zhao
The curing kinetics of a bi-component system about o-cresol-formaldehyde epoxy resin (o-CFER) modified by liquid crystalline p-phenylene di[4-(2,3-epoxypropyl) benzoate] (p-PEPB), with 3-methyl-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MeTHPA) as a curing agent, were studied by non-isothermal differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The relationship between apparent activation energy Ea and the conversion α was obtained by the isoconversional method of Ozawa. The reaction molecular mechanism was proposed. The results show that
the values of Ea in the initial stage are higher than other time, and Ea tend to decrease slightly with the reaction processing. There is a phase separation in the cure process with LC phase formation.
These curing reactions can be described by the Šesták–Berggren (S–B) equation, the kinetic equation of cure reaction as follows:
Authors:L. Zhao, J. Ge, C. Qiao, H. Zhang, and S. Jiang
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for separation and quantitative analysis of flavonoid aglycones in Rhododendron anthropogonosides Maxim. Flavonoids in their bound forms were hydrolyzed with acid before HPLC analysis. Analytical samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction on C18 reversed-phase cartridges. Optimum separation on a 4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d. C18 column was achieved by use of a 52:48 (v/v) mixture of methanol and an aqueous solution of 10 mm citric acid and 1 mm sodium dodecyl sulfate as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min–1 and the detection wavelength 360 nm. Five flavonoids, myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin, were separated with high resolution without use of gradient elution. The method was successfully used for efficient quality-control analysis by quantifying flavonoids in R. anthopogonosides. Repeatability tests showed that intra-day and inter-day RSD was <10%. LOD of the five flavonoids were <0.85 μg mL–1. Recovery ranged from 90.2 to 112.5%, with RSD <11.1%.
YBaCo4O7 compound is capable to intake and release a large amount of oxygen in the temperature range of 200–400°C. In the present
study, the effect of Zn, Ga and Fe substitution for Co on the oxygen adsorption/desorption properties of YBaCo4O7 were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) method. Due to fixed oxidation state of Zn2+ ions, the substitution of Zn2+ for Co2+ suppresses the oxygen adsorption of YBaCo4−xZnxO7. The substitution of Ga3+ for Co3+ also decreases the oxygen absorption capacity of YBaCo4−xGaxO7. This can be explained by the strong affinity of Ga3+ ions towards the GaO4 tetrahedron. Compared with Zn- and Ga-substituted samples, the drop of oxygen adsorption capacity is smallest for Fe-substituted
samples because of the similar changeability of oxidation states of Co and Fe ions.
The heat capacities of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-phenylalanine (abbreviated to NTBLP in this article), as an important chemical intermediates used to synthesize proteins and polypeptides, were measured by means of a fully automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 350 K. The measured experimental heat capacities were fitted to a polynomial equation as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic functions, HT − H298.15K and ST − S298.15K, were calculated based on the heat capacity polynomial equation in the temperature range of (80–350 K) with an interval of 5 K. The thermal stability of the compound was further studied using TG and DSC analyses; a possible mechanism for thermal decomposition of the compound was suggested.
Authors:S. Dong, X. Shi, Q. Liu, Z. Zhang, and L. Zhao
A simple hydrolysis method has been developed for determination of phenylethanoid glycosides in Lamiophlomis rotata (L.R.). Different kinds of phenylethanoid glycosides were hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid solution to produce corresponding phenethyl alcohols and cinnamic acids, mainly containing hydroxytyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl alcohol, caffeic acid, fumalic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The six analytes could be determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of mobile phase, pH and concentration of running buffer, detection wavelength, flow rate and injection volume were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the six hydrolyzates could be perfectly separated within 45 min. The response was linear over four orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 1 × 10−8 to 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 for the analytes. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real sample Du-Yi-Wei capsule and Qi-Zheng-Yan-Tong patch, with satisfactory results.