Authors:Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Zaida Agüera, Roser Granero, Anders Hakansson, Ana B. Fagundo, Ferran Bolao, Ana Valdepérez, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Eva Penelo, Laura Moragas, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Assumpta Rigol-Cuadras, Virginia Martín-Romera, and José M. Menchón
Background and aims
The main aim of this study was to analyze and describe the clinical characteristics and shared personality traits in different impulsivity–compulsivity spectrum disorders: substance use disorders (SUD), gambling disorder (GD), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The specific aims were to compare personality differences among individuals with pure SUD, BN with and without SUD, and GD with and without SUD. In addition, we assessed the differential predictive capacity of clinical and personality variables in relation to diagnostic subtype.
The sample comprised 998 subjects diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria: 101 patients were diagnosed with SUD, 482 with GD, 359 with BN, 11 with GD + SUD, and 45 patients with BN + SUD. Various assessment instruments were administered, as well as other clinical measures, to evaluate their predictive capacity.
Marked differences in personality traits were observed between groups. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperation, and self-transcendence best differentiated the groups. Notably, novelty seeking was significantly higher in the two dual pathology subgroups. Patients with dual pathology showed the most dysfunctional personality profiles.
Discussion and conclusion
Our results indicate the existence of shared dysfunctional personality traits among the groups studied, especially in novelty seeking and self-directedness.
Authors:Gemma Mestre-Bach, Roser Granero, Trevor Steward, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Marta Baño, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Zaida Agüera, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Laura Moragas, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Carles Soriano-Mas, Juan Francisco Navas, José C. Perales, José M. Menchón, and Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Background and aims
Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory has been widely applied to different clinical populations, but few studies have reported empirical evidence based on this theory for treatment outcomes in patients with gambling disorder (GD) and compulsive buying (CB). The aims of this study were to explore the association between clinical variables and personality traits with reward and punishment sensitivity (RPS) levels in women (n = 88) who met diagnostic criteria for GD (n = 61) and CB (n = 27), and to determine the predictive capacity of RPS for primary short-term outcomes in a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention.
The CBT intervention consisted of 12 weekly sessions. Data on patients’ personality traits, RPS levels, psychopathology, sociodemographic factors, GD, and CB behavior were used in our analysis.
High RPS levels were associated with higher psychopathology in both CB and GD, and were a risk factor for dropout in the CB group. In the GD group, higher reward sensitivity scores increased the risk of dropout.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings suggest that both sensitivity to reward and sensitivity to punishment independently condition patients’ response to treatment for behavioral addictions. The authors uphold that CBT interventions for such addictions could potentially be enhanced by taking RPS into consideration.
Authors:Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Bárbara García-Caro, Fulvia Prever, Belle Gavriel-Fried, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Laura Moragas, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M. Menchón, and Susana Jiménez-Murcia
The prevalence of gambling disorder (GD) in women has increased, but, to date, few studies have explored the features of clinical GD subtypes in female samples.
The aim of this study is to identify empirical clusters based on clinical/sociodemographic variables in a sample of treatment-seeking women with GD.
Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to a sample of n = 280 patients, using sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and personality traits as indicators for the grouping procedure.
Three mutually exclusive groups were obtained: (a) Cluster 1 (highly dysfunctional; n = 82, 29.3%) endorsed the highest levels in gambling severity, comorbid psychopathology, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and the lowest scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness; (b) Cluster 2 (dysfunctional; n = 142, 50.7%) achieved medium mean scores in gambling severity and psychopathological symptoms; and (c) Cluster 3 (functional; n = 56, 20.0%) obtained the lowest mean scores in gambling severity and in psychopathology, and a personality profile characterized by low levels in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence, and the highest levels in self-directedness and cooperativeness.
Discussion and conclusions
This study sheds light on the clinical heterogeneity of women suffering from GD. Identifying the differing features of women with GD is vital to developing prevention programs and personalized treatment protocols for this overlooked population.