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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Csaba Jakab, Attila Szász, Janina Kulka, Ferenc Baska, Miklós Rusvai, Péter Gálfi, and Tibor Németh

This short report describes a case of tricuspid valvular metastasis of canine disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 9-year-old female Rottweiler. Immunohistochemically the malignant neoplastic cells gave a strong reaction for vimentin and lysozyme, and showed negativity for serotonin, CD3, CD79a and cytokeratin. The intratumoural microvessels were detected by immunohistochemistry using CD31 and claudin-5. This appears to be the first report of a valvular metastasis of canine malignant histiocytosis.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: János Gál, Krisztina Landauer, Elena Palade, Katalin Ivaskevics, Miklós Rusvai, and Zoltán Demeter

The authors describe a squamous cell carcinoma arising from the ear canal of a Long-eared Hedgehog ( Hemiechinus auritus ). No metastasis could be identified elsewhere in the animal. Due to the irritation caused by the tumorous proliferation the animal constantly scratched the affected area, which led to secondary bacterial infection of the middle ear accompanied by the stagnation of an increased volume of local secretions. Using routine haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining techniques, the tumour was identified as a squamous cell carcinoma. This work constitutes the first description of such a tumour in a Long-eared Hedgehog.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Csaba Jakab, Attila Szász, Janina Kulka, Zsuzsa Schaff, Miklós Rusvai, Tibor Németh, and Péter Gálfi

This report describes a case of a canine cutaneous grade I mast cell tumour which developed within a lipoma in the right axillar region of an 8-year-old male Boxer. Immunohistologically, the neoplastic mast cells were positive for serotonin, CD45 vimentin and p53, and negative for lysozyme, CD3 and CD79a expression. The proliferation index of the mast cell tumour based on the Ki-67 antigen was 6.1%. Between the benign neoplastic lipocytes and mastocytoma tumour cells intratumoural microvessels were detected by immunohistochemical staining using CD31 and claudin-5 as markers for vascular endothelium.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zsuzsanna Tapaszti, Petra Forgách, Csaba Kővágó, László Békési, Tamás Bakonyi, and Miklós Rusvai

Microsporidiosis (nosema disease) of the European honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) is present in bee colonies worldwide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, which may have many negative effects on the colony and cause heavy economic losses in apicultures. Another microsporidium species, Nosema ceranae , was reported to infest the Asian honeybee ( Apis ceranae ), but both honeybee species are susceptible to both microsporidia. In the European honeybee N. ceranae was first detected in Spain in the year 2006. As it is difficult to distinguish N. ceranae and N. apis morphologically, a rapid and accurate assay has been developed to differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the partial large subunit ribosomal RNA. The assay was tested on 38 Nosema -infested bee samples, which were collected from geographically distant Hungarian bee colonies representing all regions of the country. Only one sample contained N. apis , and in the other 37 samples N. ceranae was detected, which indicates the dominance of N. ceranae in Hungarian apiaries. This is the first report on the presence of N. ceranae in Hungary.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević, József Özvegy, Nikola Krstić, Miklós Rusvai, Csaba Jakab, Zoran Stanimirović, and Zsolt Becskei

Water pollution is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of plastron, carapace and skin diseases of turtles. In this study, a total of 150 European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) of different age and both sexes, originating from natural habitats in Serbia, were examined for morphological changes of the skin, plastron, carapace and skeletal system. The turtles were taken out from their natural habitats in Lake Ludas, Lake Palic and Lake Tresetiste. After artificial hibernation, they were subjected to detailed examination, sampled and treated, and finally returned into their natural habitat. Biopsies from the skin and shell were subjected to histopathological examination and microbiological analysis. X-ray scanning was also performed to detect changes in the skeletal system. Macroscopic changes of the skin, most frequently degenerative, inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, were diagnosed in 49.33% of the turtles examined. Dermatitis of different origin and form was the most prominent histopathological finding (28.00%). In the plastron, inflammatory and degenerative processes were frequently found. Osteopathy and mechanical injuries were the dominant findings. Macroscopic changes of the plastron, carapace and skeletal system were diagnosed in 67.33% of the turtles examined. Using X-ray scanning, generalised osteopathy, anomalies and malformations of different aetiology were also diagnosed on the tail and legs. Microbiological examinations showed the presence of a variety of bacterial and fungal agents, either primary pathogens or potential polluters, which invaded the skin and shell, or were present in cloacal swab samples. Bacterial infection was diagnosed in 76.66% of the turtles, first of all in those with skin and shell necrosis. Mycoses were diagnosed in 33.33% of the animals.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Csaba Kővágó, Petra Forgách, Ágnes Szabára, Míra Mándoki, Ákos Hornyák, Conor Duignan, Erzsébet Pásztiné Gere, and Miklós Rusvai

Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (< 5%). According to the results of the survey, a rather high portion (about one third) of the cattle-keeping units of Hungary can be regarded as BVDV free, which ratio is much higher than had been expected on the basis of surveys carried out on a lower number of samples and in smaller regions of the country. Hence, the chances of an eradication campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Csaba Jakab, Judit Halász, Attila Szász, Enkhjargal Batmunkh, András Kiss, Zsuzsa Schaff, Miklós Rusvai, Péter Gálfi, and Janina Kulka

The recently identified claudins are dominant components of tight junctions, responsible for cell adhesion, polarity and paracellular permeability. Certain claudins have been shown to have relevance in tumour development. The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of claudin-1,-2,-3,-4,-5,-7 and-10 in normal canine mammary glands. Samples from the inguinal mammary regions of 20 non-castrated, 1–13 years old female dogs were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on conventional specimens and tissue microarrays. The results of the immunohistochemical reactions detecting claudins in tissue sections were photodocumented. The immunoreactivity of claudins was quantitatively analysed on digital images using Leica QWin morphometry software. Intense membranous immunolabelling was found for claudin-1,-3 and-7, intense membranous with non-granular cytoplasmic immunolabelling for claudin-2, moderate membranous immunolabelling for claudin-4 and-5, and weak membranous immunolabelling for claudin-10. The occurrence of tight junctions was confirmed by ultrathin section electron microscopy. The available data suggested that claudins might be proteins preserved throughout the evolution of mammals. The results of our study support the concept that they are indeed preserved, since the same type of claudins, in identical distribution, could be detected in our canine mammary tissue samples as could be found in human mammary tissue.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Csaba Jakab, Judit Halász, András Kiss, Zsuzsa Schaff, Attila Szász, Miklós Rusvai, Zsolt Abonyi Tóth, and Janina Kulka

In our recent investigation, angiogenesis was evaluated and quantified by immunohistochemical evaluation of microvessel density (MVD) using claudin-5 (CLDN-5) as a marker for vascular endothelium in 67 canine mammary gland tumours. Computer image analysis was used to measure the intratumoural MVD. Higher intratumoural MVD was detected in malignant simple neoplasms compared with benign tumours. Furthermore, the results of MVD were correlated with histological grade, higher grades being accompanied by higher MVD. In simple adenomas and grade I tubular-tubulopapillary simple carcinomas the intratumoural microvessels were wide and regular in shape with evident erythrocytes in their lumen. In grade III solid carcinomas the microvessels were smaller, less regular and had irregular shape, often without a distinct lumen, and isolated endothelial cells were frequently present. In the complex carcinomas MVD was low and the intratumoural microvessels were mostly irregular in shape without a distinct lumen. The evaluation of MVD by CLDN-5 immunohistochemistry may give useful additional information on the angiogenic potential of breast cancers in dogs.

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