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  • Author or Editor: Q. Xu x
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Abstract  

Although Ir anomaly has been discovered in a number of C/T boundaries in the world, no positive results of this anomaly in Permian/Triassic (P/Tr) boundary were given. There are many well-developed P/T sections in South China. One of representative sections is located at the Baoqing quarry, Meishan Town, Changxin County, Zhejiang Province. Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pt, Cu and Mo were determined by the radiochemical procedure developed in our laboratory. (1) Besides those accessible by INAA. The results reveal that the refractory siderophile and other chalcophile elements have certain enrichment near and at the boundary layer. However, the Ir/Au and other element abundance ratios fail to accord with the extraterrestrial values. The nature of the boundary event was discussed in terms of elemental geochemistry.

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Abstract  

The concentrations of 14 elements, including Ir, Au, Co, Cr, Fe, Sr, Rb, K, Ta, Zn, Sb, Ba, Sc and Se, in the Wuxi fallen ice were determined by neutron activation analysis. The experimental results show that the relative concentration ratios of Ir/Co, Ir/Cr and Ir/Sc etc. in the ice water (0.0069, 0.00024 and 0.11, respectively) are quite close to those of Type C1 chondrite (0.0102, 0.00021 and 0.092, respectively), which implies that the fallen ice might be a piece of extraterrestrial substance.

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The acidity of mesoporous materials FeSiMCM-41, LaSiMCM-41, SiMCM-41, AlSiMCM-41 and HAlSiMCM-41 has been investigated by microcalorimetric studies of the adsorption of ammonia and temperature programmed ammonia desorption method. In the initial stage, the acid strength sequence is SiMCM-41>HAlSiMCM-41>AlSiMCM-41>FeSiMCM-41>LaSiMCM-41, in agreement with that found for microporous molecular sieves materials. A small number of strong acid sites of SiMCM-41 may result from the aluminum impurity contained in the silica source material. The acid density sequence is HAlSiMCM-41>AlSiMCM-41>FeSiMCM-41>LaSiMCM-41SiMCM-41 and can be explained by the studies of existing states of trivalent atoms in these samples reported in previous work. Since some NH3-TPD plots of these samples show the profiles that could not be back to baseline at elevated temperature, the technique of microcalorimetric adsorption is preferable in studying these samples.

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The sorption of Eu(III) on calcareous soil as a function of pH, humic acid (HA), temperature and foreign ions was investigated under ambient conditions. Eu(III) sorption on soil was strongly pH dependent in the observed pH range. The effect of ionic strength was significant at pH < 7, and not obvious at pH > 8. The type of salt cation used had no visible influence on Eu(III) uptake on soil, however at low pH values, the influence of anions was following the order: Cl ≈ NO3  > ClO4 . In the presence of HA, the sorption edge obviously shifted about two pH units to the lower pH, whilst in range of pH 6–7, the sorption of Eu(III) decreased with increasing pH because a considerable amount of Eu(III) was present as humate complexes in aqueous phase, then increased again at pH > 11. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) on soil mainly formed outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange below pH ~7; whereas inner-sphere complexes and precipitation of Eu(OH)3(s) may play main role above pH ~8.

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The paper presents the results of determination of extractable organohalogens (EOX) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography (GC), in atmospheric precipitation in Shanghai, China, from January to August 2005. The results showed that EOCI was the major component of organohalogens in precipitation. A significant correlation between the concentrations of EOBr and EOI was observed (r 2 = 0.75), which suggested that EOBr and EOI in precipitation might mainly come from the same sources. There were no clear seasonal trends for the concentrations of EOX. The concentrations of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.2–2.8 ng/l, with the dominant PCBs containing 3 to 5 chlorine atoms. HCH was the predominant pesticide in precipitation, accounting for over 80% of total OCPs, in which β-HCH took 28%–72% of total HCH. Also, there may be an evidence for significantly historical usage of DDT.

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Abstract  

Yaozhou Kiln at Lidipo and Shangdian are two independent porcelain kiln groups of Yaozhou kiln series in Shanxi Province. Both of them were consisted of some individual porcelain kilns. The samples of 20 pieces of porcelain sherds produced in Shangdian and 43 pieces of porcelain sherds made in Lidipo sites which produced in Kin Dynasty (1115–1234 A.D.) have been collected. The main chemical compositions in body were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The contents of trace elements were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise discriminant analysis were used to study the provenance characteristic of these samples. The results indicated that the main components and trace elements in the specimen can be used to reveal the provenance characteristic.

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Thermal analysis on two new heterometallic sulfide clusters, [PPh4]2[WS3(CuBr)3]2 and [PPh4]2[MoS3(CuBr)3]2 (where PPh4=tetraphenyl phosphonium, =pentamethylcyclopenta- dienyl), was carried out using a simultaneous TG-DTA unit in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and at various heating rates. Supplemented using EDS method, their thermal behavior and properties, together with the composition of their intermediate product, were examined and discussed in connection with their distinctive molecular structure as a dianion, which provided some theoretically and practically significant information. Both clusters decomposed in a two-step mode, but without a stable new phase composed of Mo/W-Cu-S formed during their decomposition process as we expected. Based on TG-DTG data, four methods, i.e. Achar-Brindley-Sharp, Coats-Redfern, Kissinger and Flynn- Wall-Ozawa equation, were used to calculate the non-isothermal kinetic parameters and to determine the most probable mechanisms.

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Wood cribs free burning tests were conducted under ISO9705 hood. From the tests, the heat release rate of these cribs was grouped as 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MW. This result was used to correct an empirical formula for peak heat release rate calculation. The correction achieves acceptable accuracy for the typical wood. The test result also shown heat release rate curve can be normalized by the total combustion surface of the wood crib. This can also be used to predict the HRR of wood crib of certain sizes and structures.

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Abstract  

Cone calorimeter tests were conducted to investigate the flammability of glass-reinforced plastics (GRP) panels. The results gained from these bench scale tests were used to predict the time to flashover in the ISO 9705 room, which was partly covered by GRP panels. Östman and Tsantaridis’ empirical linear regression model and multiple discriminant function analysis (MDA) were used in the prediction. Three room-scale GRP fire tests were conducted in ISO 9705 room and the results were compared with the prediction.

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Abstract  

Burning behavior of small-scale wood crib was studied by a serial of cone calorimeter tests. The heat release rate curves of these small wood cribs were different due to porosity factor and this shows that the control condition switches from one to another. The burning of some crib with small porosity factors was self-extinguished in fixed flow rate of air supply in cone calorimeter. These results were compared with Gross’s studies. The switch point of porosity-controlled and surface area controlled burning regime is different from Gross’s result.

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