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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: A. Vasconcelos, M. Dantas, M. Filho, R. Rosenhaim, E. Cavalcanti, N. Antoniosi Filho, F. Sinfrônio, I. Santos, and A. Souza

Abstract  

The influence of drying processes in the biodiesel oxidation was investigated by means of the oxidative induction time obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data. For this purpose, corn biodiesel was dried by different methods including: chemical (anhydrous sodium sulfate) and thermal (induction heating, heating under vacuum and with microwave irradiation). The drying efficiency was evaluated by monitoring IR absorption in the 3,500–3,200 cm−1 range and by the AOCS Bc 2-49 method. In general, the oxidative induction times increased inversely to the heating degree, except that of microwave irradiation, which was selective to water evaporation and caused low impact over the unsaturation of biodiesel. The DSC technique was shown to be a powerful tool to evaluate with high level of differentiation the influence of the drying process on the oxidative stability of biodiesel.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace element concentrations in brain tissues from normal (n = 21) and demented individuals (n = 21) of both genders aged more than 50 years. Concentrations of the elements Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for the hippocampus and frontal cortex tissues, as well as, those obtained in brains of normal and demented individuals. Certified reference materials, NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver were analyzed for quality of the analytical results.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Bannach, R. Arcaro, D. Ferroni, A. Siqueira, O. Treu-Filho, M. Ionashiro, and E. Schnitzler

Abstract  

Thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as X-ray diffraction powder (DRX) patterns and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. The chemical or physical properties of the studied compounds were established and when possible by X-ray powder diffractometry and/or infrared spectroscopy were used. In this investigation, quantum chemical approach was used to determine the molecular structures using Becke three-parameter hybrid method and the Lee–Yang–Par (LYP) correlation functional. The performed molecular calculations in this work were done using the Gaussian 03 routine. Theoretical calculations help in interpretations of FTIR spectra supplying structural and physicochemical parameters.

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Abstract

In this work Chitosan (Ch) was chemically modified with ethylenesulfide (Es) under solvent-free conditions to give (ChEs), displaying a high content of thiol groups due to opening of the three member cyclic reagent. ChEs was used in studies of lead and cadmium adsorption from aqueous solution, using the batchwise method and calorimetric studies were accomplished to those interactions, through the calorimetric titration technique. The obtained results show that the modified Ch, ChEs is a material, that besides presenting the advantages of being a biopolymer, it showed a good adsorption capacity of the lead and cadmium cation metallic, that are extremely poisonous and harmful to the environment. The results of the calorimetric titration showed that the related thermodynamic parameters to those adsorptions shown favorable thermodynamic data.

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Abstract  

Ten rum (aguardente) samples commercialized in Piracicaba region, São Paulo State, Brazil Southeast, were analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) preconcentration in order to determine Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations. The effect of sucrose (2%) was also studied in this methodology, using a multielemental standard solution (40% ethanol). Copper concentrations in two samples were higher than the value allowed by Brazilian law. Limits of detection for these elements were in the ng.ml-1 range.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: R. Macêdo, J. Barbosa-Filho, E. da Costa, and A. de Souza

Abstract  

The terpenoids acetyl sitosterol, lupeol, acetyl diosgenin and stigmasterol were studied. Comparison of the thermogravimetric curves and the activation energies of the terpenoids suggested the following sequence of thermal stability: acetyl sitosterol < acetyl diosgenin < lupeol < stigmasterol. The DSC curves allowed determination of the melting points and the degrees of purity. Comparison of the TG and DSC curves revealed the presence of phase transitions without mass loss that were attributed to rearrangements in the terpenoid molecules.

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Abstract  

Petroleum samples were analyzed by TG between 25–600°C. Mass loss was observed up to 500°C. The volatile fraction of petroleum samples in the range of 25–150°C were recovered by bubbling the outgoing gaseous products of the TG experiments in dichloromethane. Each volatile fraction obtained was analyzed by HRGC-MS for identification and quantification of the major components. Following this procedure the classification of the petroleum samples were done according to the obtained mass losses between 25–150°C (which varied from 1.76 to 21.89%) and according to their normal paraffin, aromatic and naphthene contents.

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Acetaminophen (AAP), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and dipyrone (DIP) are antipyretic and analgesics drugs that have wide use in health sciences. Some drugs can modify the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of AAP, ASA and DIP on the labeling of the blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of the drugs before the 99mTc-labeled process. Plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. Data have shown that the antipyretic drugs used in this study did not significantly modify the fixation of 99mTc on the blood elements when the experiments were carried out with the doses usually used in human beings. Although the experiments were carried out with rats, it is possible to suggest that AAP, ASA or DIP should not interfere with the procedures in nuclear medicine involving the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L. Freire, T. Bicudo, R. Rosenhaim, F. Sinfrônio, J. Botelho, J. Carvalho Filho, I. Santos, V. Fernandes, N. Antoniosi Filho, and A. Souza

Abstract  

Biodiesel is susceptible to autoxidation if exposed to air, light and temperature, during its storage. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seeds show potential application for biodiesel production since its oil yields high quality biodiesel. This work aims to evaluate the thermal behavior of the physic nut oil and biodiesel, from several Brazilian crops, by means of thermoanalytical techniques. Thermogravimetry (TG) and pressurized-differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) were used in order to determine the applicability of physic nut biodiesel as fuel. Results suggest that physic nut biodiesel is a practical alternative as renewable and biodegradable fuel able to be used in diesel motors.

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