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Elsholtzia densa Benth. var. densa (Lamiaceae) is a famous medicinal herb which has been widely used for treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, digestion disorder, rheumatic arthritis, nephritises, and nyctalopia in China. In this study, fraction of the ethyl alcohol extract of E. densa (aerial part) by different polarity solvents indicated that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited a potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 148.2 μg/mL. Under the target guidance of DPPH experiment, isoquercitrin, trachelogenin, ethyl caffeate, and arctigenin were separated with purities 95.98%, 92.98%, 96.07%, and 88.83%, respectively, by a dual-mode high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method using n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (4.5:5:3:4, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In order to evaluate the scientific basis, antioxidant activity of four isolated compounds was assessed by the radical scavenging effect on DPPH radical; isoquercitrin and ethyl caffeate showed stronger antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 9.4 μg/mL and 9.2 μg/mL, respectively, while trachelogenin and arctigenin showed weak antioxidant activities with IC50 values of >500 μg/mL and 72.8 μg/mL, respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using DPPH antioxidant assay and dual-mode HSCCC could be widely applied for rapid screening and isolating of antioxidants from complex traditional Chinese medicine extract.

Open access

This study was conducted to compare structural development and biochemical accumulation of waxy and non-waxy wheat (NW) caryopses. The caryopses’ microstructure of the waxy wheat (WW) and NW cultivars at different developmental stages were observed under light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows: Compared with NW,WWhad a shorter maturation duration, which was reflected in several following characteristics. Programmed cell death of the pericarp began earlier, and the chlorophyll-containing layer in the pericarp was smaller. Vacuoles in chalazal cells accumulated more tannins at different developmental stages. Starch granules and protein bodies in the endosperm showed a higher accumulation level in developing caryopses, and aleurone cells were larger in size with larger numbers of aleurone grains. An analysis of the element content indicated that the mineral elements Mg, P, K, and Ca exhibited a higher content, while the heavy elements Cr, Cd, and Pb exhibited a lower content in the aleurone layer.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Yao, F. Wang, L. Tian, Y. Zhou, H. Chen, K. Chen, N. Gai, R. Zhuang, T. Maskow, B. Ceccanti, and G. Zaray


Using TAM III multi-channel calorimetry combined with direct microorganism counting (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) under laboratory conditions, we determined the microbial population count, resistance and activity toward cadmium (Cd(II)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) toxicity in soil. The thermokinetic parameters, which can represent soil microbial activity, were calculated from power-time curves of soil microbial activity obtained by microcalorimetric measurement. Simultaneous application of the two methods showed that growth rate constant (k), peak-heat output power (P max) and the number of living microorganisms decreased with increasing concentration of Cd and Cr. The accumulation of Cr on E. coli was conducted by HPLC-ICP-MS. Cr6+ accumulation by Escherichia coli was increased steadily with increasing Cr6+ concentration. The results revealed that the change in some thermo-kinetic parameters could have good corresponding relationship with metal accumulation. Our work also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, more sensitive, on-line and in vitro method that can be easily performed to study the toxicity of different species of heavy metals on microorganism compared to other biological methods, and can combine with other analytic methods to study the interaction mechanism between environmental toxicants and microbes.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R. Li, Sheng Zhang, Patrick D. Worhunsky, Nan Zhou, Jin-Tao Zhang, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, and Xiao-Yi Fang


Background and aims

Deficits in cognitive control represent a core feature of addiction. Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) offers an ideal model to study the mechanisms underlying cognitive control deficits in addiction, eliminating the confounding effects of substance use. Studies have reported behavioral and neural deficits in reactive control in IGD, but it remains unclear whether individuals with IGD are compromised in proactive control or behavioral adjustment by learning from the changing contexts.


Here, fMRI data of 21 male young adults with IGD and 21 matched healthy controls (HC) were collected during a stop-signal task. We employed group independent component analysis to investigate group differences in temporally coherent, large-scale functional network activities during post-error slowing, the typical type of behavioral adjustments. We also employed a Bayesian belief model to quantify the trial-by-trial learning of the likelihood of stop signal – P(Stop) – a broader process underlying behavioral adjustment, and identified the alterations in functional network responses to P(Stop).


The results showed diminished engagement of the fronto-parietal network during post-error slowing, and weaker activity in the ventral attention and anterior default mode network in response to P(Stop) in IGD relative to HC.

Discussion and conclusions

These results add to the literatures by suggesting deficits in updating and anticipating conflicts as well as in behavioral adjustment according to contextual information in individuals with IGD.

Open access