We prove that the conjugate convolution operators can be used to calculate jumps for functions. Our results generalize the theorems established by He and Shi. Furthermore, by using Lukács and Móricz's idea, we solve an open question posed by Shi and Hu.
Authors:D. Wang, A. Bai, X. Lin, L. Fang, X. Shu, X. Shi, Q. Sun, and X. Wang
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract shionone from Aster tataricus L. f. The effect of various parameters, i.e., temperature, pressure and sample particle size on yield was investigated with an analytical-scale SFE system to find the optimal conditions. The process was then scaled up by 50 times with a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of temperature 40 °C, pressure 30 MPa, and a sample particle size of 40–60 mesh. Then preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography was successfully used for isolation and purification of shionone from the SFE extract with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-methanol (2:1, volume ratio). The separation produced a total of 75 mg of shionone from 500 mg of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 98.7%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 92% recovery. The structure of shionone was identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR).
Authors:X. X. Liu, L. Wang, J. Yang, T. T. Zhang, X. D. Deng, and Q. Wang
Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic methods with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) and electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn) have been established and validated for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of eight steroidal saponins in ten batches of Gongxuening capsule (GXN), a widely commercially available traditional Chinese preparation. The optimum chromatographic conditions entailed use of a Kromasil C18 column with acetonitrile-water (30:70 to 62:38, υ/υ) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was 102°C and the nebulizing gas flow rate was 2.8 L min−1. Separation was successfully achieved within 25 min. LC-ESI-MSn was used for unequivocal identification of the constituents of the samples by comparison with reference compounds. The assay was fully validated for precision, repeatability, accuracy, and stability, then successfully applied to quantification of the eight compounds in samples. The method could be effective for evaluation of the clinical safety and efficacy of GXN.
Authors:X. Wang, X. Yin, X. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Tian, M. Wu, and X. Sheng
A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon40Ar ions was applied to the investigation of the trace elements behavior in feces and urine of mouse. The excretion rates of
23 elements, Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In were simultaneously
detected under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of the elements in mice.
Fecal and urinary excretion rates of the elements in mice reached the highest value separately at 48 and 24 hours. The total
excretion of Mo, Tc and Co within 96 hours were all larger, more than 60%. Accumulative excretion rates of Ca, Nb, Mg, Sr,
V, Sc, Na, Cr, Fe, Ag, Mn and Zr were 60-30%. The total rates of Ru, K, As, Zn, Rb, Y, Ga and In were less than 30%, and low
excretion. The main excretion pathway of Mo, Co, Mg, Fe and Ag was through urine, and Na, K, As and Rb were eliminated from
the body also in urine. But fecal excretion of Tc, Nb, Sr, Y, Ru, and In were larger than urinary excretion, and Ca, Sc, Mn,
Zr, Zn were eliminated from the body in feces.
Authors:X. Geng, H. Gao, B. Wang, A. Liu, and X. Feng
Both calorimetric determination of displacement adsorption enthalpies ΔH and measurement of adsorbed amounts of lysozyme (Lyz) denatured by 1.8 mol L−1 guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) on a moderately hydrophobic packings at 298 K, pH 7.0 and various salt concentrations were
carried out. Based on the thermodynamics of stoichiometric displacement theory (SDT) the fractions of thermodynamic functions,
which related to four subprocesses of denatured protein refolding on the surface, were calculated and thermodynamic analysis
that which one of the subprocesses plays major role for contribution to the thermodynamic fractions was made in detail. The
moderately hydrophobic surface can provide denatured Lyz energy and make it gain more conformation with surface coverage or
salt concentration increment. The displacement adsorptions of denatured Lyz onto PEG-600 surface are exothermic, more structure-ordered
and enthalpy driven processes.
Authors:Y. Chen, H. Wang, X. Meng, X. Zeng, and J. Xie
A novel thermokinetic research method for determination of the rate constant of a reaction taking place in a batch conduction
calorimeter under isothermal conditions is proposed: the double-thermoanalytical curve method. The method needs only the characteristic
time parameter tm, the peak height Δm at time tm and the peak area a*m after time tm for two thermoanalytical curves measured with different initial concentrations of the reactants: it conveniently calculates
the rate constants. The thermokinetics of four reaction systems were studied with this method, and its validity was verified
by the experimental results.
Authors:X. Cao, X. Yang, J. Shi, Y. Liu, and C. Wang
The effect of glucose (0–15 mass%) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) denatured aggregation at high concentration
in aqueous solution has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The observed denatured aggregation process was
irreversible and could be characterized by a denaturation temperature (Tm), apparent activation energy (Ea), the approximate order of reaction, and pre-exponential factor (A). As the glucose concentration increased from 0 to 15 mass%, Tm increased, Ea also increased from 514.59409±6.61489 to 548.48611±7.81302 kJ mol−1, and A/s−1 increased from 1.24239E79 to 5.59975E83. The stabilization increased with an increasing concentration of glucose, which was
attributed to its ability to alter protein denatured aggregation kinetics.
The kinetic analysis was carried out using a composite procedure involving the iso-conversional method and the master plots
method. The iso-conversional method indicated that denatured aggregation of BSA in the presence and absence of glucose should
conform to single reaction model. The master plots method suggested that the simple order reaction model best describe the
process. This study shows the combination of iso-conversional method and the master plots method can be used to quantitatively
model the denatured aggregation mechanism of the BSA in the presence and absence of glucose.
Authors:X. Geng, M. Zheng, B. Wang, Z. Lei, and X. Geng
Calorimetric measurement of adsorption enthalpies of native lysozyme(Lyz) on a moderately hydrophobic surface at 25°C, pH
7.0 and various salt concentrations was performed. Based on the thermodynamics of stoichiometric displacement theory (SDT),
we calculated the fractions of thermodynamic functions involving four subprocesses during a displacement adsorption process
from the directly determined enthalpies in combination with adsorption isotherm measurements. The thermodynamic fractions
reveal the relative degree of the four subprocesses for contributions to enthalpy, entropy and free energy. The results show
that native Lyz adsorption on a moderately hydrophobic surface is an entropy driven process contributed mainly by conformational
loss of adsorbed Lyz.
Authors:X. Zeng, Y. Chen, S. Cheng, X. Meng, and Q. Wang
A novel method for the determination of rate constants of reactions, the time-variable method, is proposed in this paper. The method needs only three time points (t), peak heights () and pre-peak areas (), obtained from the measured thermoanalytical curve. It does not require the thermokinetic reaction to be completed. It utilizes data-processing on a computer to give the rate constants. Four reaction systems, including a first-order reaction, second-order reactions (with equal concentrations and with unequal concentrations) and a third-order reaction, were studied with this method. The method was validated and its theoretical basis was verified by the experimental results.
Authors:X. Li, Y. Nie, X. Song, R. Zhang, and G. Wang
Different components of biodiversity may vary differently since species diversity was considered to be determined by resource availability but functional diversity was related to partitioning of niche space. Moreover, the harsh or benign conditions may result in different niche space partitioning by the coexisting species. For example, in harsh environments niche differentiation may be stronger resulting in higher functional diversity. In this study, we investigate species diversity and functional diversity along a south-to north-facing slope gradient with different resource availability in a sub-alpine meadow. Our results indicate that the patterns of species diversity and functional diversity are not consistent along this gradient. Both species richness and Shannon index of diversity increased, but functional diversity slightly decreased or changed a little from south-to north-facing slope. Moreover, these two components formed a quadratic relationship. Soil water content (SWC) was the limiting resource along this gradient. On one hand, it determined the species diversity; on the other hand, it also influenced functional diversity via affecting niche differentiation and species trait pool. In conclusion, functional diversity was determined by both species richness and niche differentiation with the influence of soil water content.