Authors:H.-L. Liu, S.-J. Liu, Z.-L. Xiao, Q.-Y. Chen, and D.-W. Yang
Excess molar enthalpies of binary mixtures for tributyl
phosphate (TBP)+methanol/ethanol were measured with a TAM air Isothermal calorimeter
at 298.15 K and ambient. The results for xTBP+(1–x)CH3OH
are negative in the whole range of composition, while the values for xTBP+(1–x)C2H5OH
change from positive values at low x to
small negative values at high x. The experimental
results have been correlated with the Redlich–Kister polynomial. IR
spectra of the mixtures were measured to investigate the effect of hydrogen
bonding in the mixture.
Authors:T Yano, W Widjaja, K Shirakawa, C-S Lian, Z Xiao, and T Yunoki
The purpose of this study was to determine whether tissue oxygen indices (TOIs) in two muscle groups oscillated and were synchronized in repetition of impulse exercise with high intensity. Five impulse exercises of 400 watts for 10 s were repeated with intervals of 6 min. During this period, TOI was determined by near-infrared spectroscopy in the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles. TOIs in the two muscles oscillated at rest. The TOIs rapidly decreased during each impulse exercise and then recovered and overshot after each impulse. The TOIs oscillated during each interval period. During this test period, coherent and phase differences were determined. There was high coherence between TOIs in the two muscles with a peak value at 0.019 Hz. There was a phase difference of −45 ± 32.4 degrees between TOIs in the two muscles. This phase difference corresponded to about 6 s in time scale. It seemed from this time delay that impulse exercise was not a trigger factor for the starting point of TOIs in the two muscles. It has been concluded that TOIs oscillate and are synchronized between two muscles in repetition of impulse exercise with high intensity.
Authors:T Yano, R Afroundeh, K Shirakawa, C-S Lian, K Shibata, Z Xiao, and T Yunoki
The purpose of the present study was to examine how oscillation of tissue oxygen index (TOI) in non-exercising exercise is affected during high-intensity and low-intensity exercises. Three exercises were performed with exercise intensities of 30% and 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak) for 12 min and with exercise intensity of 70% Vo2peak for 30 s. TOI in non-exercising muscle (biceps brachii) during the exercises for 12 min was determined by nearinfrared spectroscopy. TOI in the non-exercising muscle during the exercises was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain power spectra density (PSD). The frequency at which maximal PSD appeared (Fmax) during the exercise with 70% Vo2peak for 12 min (0.00477 ± 0.00172 Hz) was significantly lower than that during the exercise with 30% Vo2peak for 12 min (0.00781 ± 0.00338 Hz). There were significant differences in blood pH and blood lactate between the exercise with 70% Vo2peak and the exercise with 30% Vo2peak. It is concluded that TOI in nonexercising muscle oscillates during low-intensity exercise as well as during high-intensity exercise and that the difference in Fmax between the two exercises is associated with the difference in increase in blood lactate derived from the exercise.
Authors:M. Li, Z. Du, H. Pan, C. Yan, W. Xiao, and J. Lei
Plant-plant interaction plays a key role in regulating the composition and structure of communities and ecosystems. Studies of plant-plant interactions in forest ecosystems have mainly concentrated on growth effects of neighboring plants on target trees. Physiological effects of neighboring plants on target trees, in particular understorey effects on physiology of overstorey trees, have received less attention. It is still unclear what is the physiological mechanisms underlying positive growth effects of understorey removal, although understorey removal has been applied to improve the wood production for hundreds of years worldwide. Only 17.5% of published works dealt with understorey-overstorey interactions and only a few of those researched the understorey effects on the physiology of overstorey trees. Case studies indicated that overstorey Abies faxoniana trees grown with different understorey shrubs showed significantly different levels of tissue nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates. Removal experiment showed that nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates concentrations in Cunninghamia lanceolata trees grown in the absence of understorey shrubs differed significantly (pure stand > mixture) with those in trees grown in the presence of understorey shrubs, in particular during the dry season. This review highlighted that the neighboring woody plants affect Cand N-physiology in overstorey trees. These effects may be mainly resulted from underground competition for soil water rather than for other resources as the effects were more pronounced during the dry season. The present review suggests that positive effects of neighboring removal (e.g., understorey removal, thinning) on overstorey trees can be expected more rapidly and strongly in stressful area (e.g., low rainfall, nutrient-poor site) than in areas with optimal growth conditions. Hence, ecophysiology-based management strategies for dealing with neighboring plants in forest ecosystems should take into account: 1) site conditions, 2) timing, duration and frequency of management practices, and 3) species-specific properties and other aspects such as biodiversity conservation and soil erosion.
Authors:L. Ji-zhen, F. Xue-zhong, H. Rong-zu, Z. Xiao-dong, Z. Feng-qi, and G. Hong-Xu
The thermal behavior of copper(II) 4-nitroimidazolate (CuNI) under static and dynamic states are studied by means of high-pressure
DSC (PDSC) and TG with the different heating rates and the combination technique of in situ thermolysis cell with rapid-scan
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (thermolysis/RSFTIR).
The results show that the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the major exothermic decomposition reaction
of CuNI obtained by Kissinger’s method are 233.2 kJ mol−1 and 1017.95 s−1, respectively. The critical temperature of the thermal explosion and the adiabatic time-to-explosion of CuNI are 601.97 K
and 4.4∼4.6 s, respectively. The decomposition of CuNI begins with the split of the C-NO2 and C-H bonds, and the decomposition process of CuNI under dynamic states occurs less readily than those under static states
because the dynamic nitrogen removes the strong oxidative decomposition product (NO2). The above-mentioned information on thermal behavior is quite useful for analyzing and evaluating the stability and thermal
charge rule of CuNI.
Authors:L. Feng, H. Xiao, X. He, Z. Li, F. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chai, Y. Zhao, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Zhang
To investigate the effects of lanthanum exposure on regional distribution of inorganic elements in rat brain. Wistar rats
were exposed to lanthanum chloride through oral administration at 0, 0.1, 2, and 40 mg/kg concentration for 6 months. The
elements such as Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were identified in the brain slices by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence
(SRXRF) analysis. Differences of brain elemental distributions were noticed. Cl, Ca, and Zn were primarily concentrated in
hippocampus of the controls. With the increase of the lanthanum dosage, the Ca and Zn levels significantly decreased, while
the Cu levels significantly elevated in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Our results suggest that subchronic lanthanum exposure
in rats appears to change elemental distributions in brain.
Biofortifying food crops with essential minerals would help to alleviate mineral deficiencies in humans. Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for mineral nutrient contents in rice was conducted using backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon. The population was grown in Hangzhou and Lingshui, with the contents of Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se in brown rice measured in both trials and that in milled rice tested in Hangzhou only. A total of 24 QTLs for mineral element contents were identified, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 17 for brown rice only, and five for milled rice only. All the seven QTLs detected for the mineral contents in milled rice and 13 of the 19 QTLs for the contents in brown rice had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Fifteen QTLs were clustered in seven chromosomal regions, indicating that common genetic-physiological mechanisms were involved for different mineral nutrients and the beneficial alleles could be utilized to improve grain nutritional quality by markerassisted selection.
Authors:Z.K. Xie, S.Y. Yu, M. He, S.X. Yu, H.F. Xiao, and Y.D. Song
In this paper, we studied the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on non-enzymatic glycosylation and the improvement of glycometabolism in insulin resistant (IR) human liver tumour (HepG2) cells. The anti-glycosylation activity of OA was determined by bovine serum albumin (BSA) fructose model. The results showed that OA moderately inhibited the formation of the intermediates of non-enzymatic glycosylation, fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds, and strongly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, we analysed the effect of OA on glycometabolism induced by palmitic acid (PA) in HepG2 cells. The results showed that OA had almost no impact on HepG2 cell viability at concentrations lower than 30 µM. With the increase of OA concentration, glucose production in IR HepG2 cells decreased, while glycogen content increased. Meanwhile, OA has a significant inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in IR-HepG2 cells. Those results suggested that OA could be a promising natural blood glucose decreasing substance in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.
Two lines, L-19-613 and L-19-626, were produced from the common wheat cultivar Longmai 19 (L-19) by six consecutive backcrosses using biochemical marker-assisted selection. L-19 (Glu-D1a, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?; Gli-A1? is a gene coding for unnamed gliadin) and L-19-613 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1?) formed a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for HMW-GS, while L-19-613 and L-19-626 (Glu-D1d, Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m) constituted another set of NILs for the LMW-GS/gliadins. The three L-19 NILs were grown in the wheat breeding nursery in 2007 and 2008. The field experiments were designed using the three-column contrast arrangement method with four replicates. The three lines were ranked as follows for measurements of gluten strength, which was determined by the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, the stability and breakdown time of the farinogram, the maximum resistance and area of the extensogram, and the P andWvalues of the alveogram: L-19-613 > L-19-626 > L-19. The parameters listed above were significantly different between lines at the 0.05 or 0.01 level. The Glu-D1 and Glu-A3/Gli-A1 loci had additive effects on the gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, stability, breakdown time, maximum resistance, area, P and W values. Although genetic variation at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus had a great influence on wheat quality, the genetic difference between Glu-D1d and Glu-D1a at the Glu-D1 locus was much larger than that of Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? and Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m at the Glu-A3/Gli-A1 locus. Glu-D1d had negative effects on the extensibility and the L value compared with Glu-D1a. In contrast, Glu-A3c/Gli-A1? had a positive effect on these traits compared with Glu-A3e/Gli-A1m.
Authors:Y. C. Xiao, L. T. Liu, J. J. Bian, C. Q. Yan, L. Ye, M. X. Zhao, Q. S. Huang, W. Wang, K. Liang, Z. F. Shi, and X. Ke
Shuganjieyu (SGJY) capsule is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and ion trap mass spectrometry has been established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of SGJY and the multiple constituents of SGJY in rats. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 RRHD column (150 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), while 0.1% formic acid–water and 0.1% formic acid–acetonitrile was used as mobile phase. Mass spectral data were acquired in both positive and negative modes. On the basis of the characteristic retention time (Rt) and mass spectral data with those of reference standards and relevant references, 73 constituents from the SGJY and 15 ingredients including 10 original constituents and 5 metabolites from the rat plasma after oral administration of SGJY were identified or tentatively characterized. This study provided helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on SGJY.