Authors:M. Dobos-Kovács, E. Horváth, A. Farsang, Edith Nagy, Andrea Kovács, F. Szalai, and S. Bernáth
Haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese as a new disease was first described in Hungary in 1969. The authors identified the causative agent of the outbreaks occurring in 1969 as a polyomavirus by PCR in 2001. In order to study the pathogenesis of the virus, one-day-old goslings were infected with tissue homogenate that tested positive for polyomavirus by PCR. Morphological, light and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations have revealed that goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus replicates in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels and capillaries of diseased birds. Infection causes damage and necrosis of the endothelial cells. The virus was not observed in the parenchymal cells. Oedema and haemorrhages found throughout the body may be due to the dysfunction or functional deficiency of endothelial cells damaged by the virus.
Authors:András Kovács, Zi-An Li, Kiyou Shibata, and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski
Magnetic skyrmions are vortex-like spin structures that are of great interest scientifically and for applications in low-power magnetic memories. The nanometer size and complex spin structure require high-resolution and quantitative experimental methods to study the physical properties of skyrmions. Here, we illustrate how Lorentz TEM and off-axis electron holography can be used to study the spin textures of magnetic skyrmions in the noncentrosymmetric B20-type helimagnet FeGe as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. By reversing the magnetic field inside the microscope, the switching mechanism of the skyrmion lattice at 240 K is followed, showing a transition of the skyrmion lattice to the helical structure before the anti-skyrmion lattice is formed.
Authors:András Komócsi, A. Kónyi, E. Kovács, and I. Ungi
Coronary angiography and intervention became an integral part of the modern cardiology. These invasive procedures beside their firmly established benefits also expose the patient to a hazard for access site complication, contrast material and radiation exposure. Transradial access significantly reduces the risk associated with the arterial puncture; however its effect regarding the radiation exposure is debated. Our aim was to review the aspects of transradial coronary intervention in the context of the radiation exposure. This review focuses on key aspects of feasibility and safety related to the access site choice and the learning curve.
Authors:E. Kovács, P. Tóth, Cs. Juhász, and J. TamáS
There are numerous biological agents including bacteria such as Brucella suis, B. abortus, Francisella tularensis, Burkholderia mallei, Coxiella burnetii, Yersina pestis, Bacillus anthracis and Chlamydia psittaci, viruses such as Variola major and V. minor, Flavivirus and Hantavirus, and toxins such as Botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and Trichothecene mycotoxin reported to have potential to cause illness via water consumption. In the recent years, biological threat prevention for urban water supply systems has been of special interest worldwide, thus, protection against biological agents requires adequate knowledge, available water treatment technologies and preparedness. In this review, the history of biological threat via public water supply, as well as selected early detection methods, prevention strategies and risk assessment models are detailed.
Authors:A. Matkó, E. Szűcs, T. Takács, and S. Kovács
Today, companies have to face new challanges because of the globalization, new technologies, globalization of markets and increasing competition. In this accelerated world, it is essential that the companies adapt to the market, which is only available through the necessary information. The importance of market research is undoubted. In our study we would like to prove that in case of a beginner company — in this case a confectionery — it is important to perform a market research like for a company in any other segment. To perform it, the qualitative market research methods were used. Our questionnaire examines several aspects in order to provide an indication of the company’s founding.
Authors:A. Fehér, E. Csányi, I. Csóka, Anita Kovács, and I. Erős
The interactions between surfactant and water were studied thermoanalytically focusing on the lyotropic liquid crystalline and microemulsion region in four ternary systems containing Cremophor EL and Cremophor RH40 as surfactants, neutral oil and isopropyl myristate as oily components. Subzero temperature DSC (SZT-DSC) measurements were carried out to determine the quantity of the bound water forming a hydration layer in surfactant microstructures, and the amount of free water, which has physico-chemical properties not much different from those of pure water. The variation of the surfactant:bound water ratio in the function of water concentration was also investigated. Phase changes detected by the SZT-DSC measurements were confirmed by polarization-microscopic and rheological investigations.
Authors:Viktória Kovács, Zs Fajcsák, A. Gábor, and É. Martos
We determined the effect of a school-based exercise training (ET) without dietary intervention, on body composition, fitness and cardiovascular risk in overweight/obese children. Subjects were 51 overweight/obese 6.5- to 12.5-year-old children (23 boys, 28 girls; BMI 25.6±4.3 kg/m
), of whom 48 completed the program. Participants were enrolled in a 15-week aerobic training (three 60-minute sessions/week). Working heart rate was between 120–185 beats/minute. Participation rate was 87%. BMI, waist circumference, body composition (bioimpedance), aerobic capacity (treadmill), blood pressure, lipids and insulin sensitivity (HOMA) were assessed. Waist circumference (85.9±12.4 vs. 80.9±10.2 cm), muscle mass (32.4±6.2 vs. 33.7±6.1 kg), maximal oxygen consumption (37.0±3.9 vs. 42.6±11.2 ml/kg per minute), systolic blood pressure (113.3±11.2 vs. 106.7±11.6 mmHg) and LDL cholesterol (2.4±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.6 mM/l) improved significantly. Number of children with abdominal obesity (29 vs. 20), hypertension (10 vs. 5) and elevated triglyceride (18 vs. 14) also declined significantly over time. We concluded that as a result of high attendance and appropriate training program, cardiovascular fitness and abdominal obesity improved in overweight/obese children along with the improvement in metabolic risk factor profile.
Authors:Cs. Móczár, G. Borgulya, E. Kovács, and I. Rurik
Obesity is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary intervention combined with life style changes were implemented in other countries and proved to be effective. Previously, there were no similar Hungarian experiences.The aim of our study was to screen overweight and obese patients in primary care settings, to involve them in an interventional program and to analyse the expected changes in the laboratory and anthropometric parameters.From 29 primary care practices, 2489 overweight or obese patients were recruited between April of 2004 and 2006.The characteristics of living circumstances, life style, eating and exercise habits were explored by questionnaire. Regular energy intake was counted and compared to estimated requirements. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters were measured. Experienced multi-disciplinary staff was involved, including internist, family physicians, dietetitian, experienced nurses and physical instructors. The interventions were: dietary (recommendation of low calorie diet) and increasing physical activity.One year later the body mass index decreased significantly by 0.56 kg m−2 average and remained about the same by the end of the second year. There was only a small decrease in waist circumference. The rest systolic blood pressure decreased significantly on average 5.9 mmHg by the end of the first year, while decrease in resting diastolic blood pressure was less. All metabolic parameters, except HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly: total cholesterol: by 0.23 mmol l−1, trigliceride: by 0.18 mmol l−1, blood glucose: by 0.15 mmol l−1.Primary care intervention proved to be effective. Better outcomes would be expected, when more resources, more focus in the media, more support from health authorities and sufficient manpower was available.
Authors:V. Kapcsándi, A.J. Kovács, M. Neményi, and E. Lakatos
The aim of our experiments was to demonstrate the non-thermal effect of microwave treatment on Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation activity. A method was developed for studying the effects of various treatments in the course of must fermentation. The raw material (must) was treated in different ways: (i) heat transfer; (ii) microwave treatment; (iii) inoculation with yeast, and (iv) their combinations. The results of the treatments were compared with respect to alcohol concentration, sugar content, and acidity. The results proved that sugar content of the treated samples rapidly decreased compared to the control sample, and fermentation time was 40% shorter in the fastest case. These results can be explained by the yeast inoculation and microwave treatment. Due to non-thermal effects, fermentation capacity increased by about 30%, while the energy consumption decreased.
Authors:A. Gábor, V. Kovács, Zs. Fajcsák, and É. Martos
This study evaluated the diet of 615 professional athletes (PA) (306 males and 309 females; 21.3±5.5 years) compared with 312 age-matched non-athletes (NA), who participated in the 3
Hungarian National Dietary Survey in 2003. Dietary intake was assessed based on 3-day food record. In males, daily energy intake was 3513±1143 kcal and 2965±551 kcal for PA and NA, respectively (P<0.001). In females, there were no significant differences between PA and NA concerning the intake of energy. Athletes reported insufficient energy intake in both genders. Similarly to NA, PA failed to meet the adequate rate for macronutrients. Energy intake from carbohydrates was lower (47.3±6.6% in male and 49.2±7.3% in female) and from lipids higher (36.8±6% in male and 35.2±6.7% in female) than recommended. Athletes reported higher intakes of vitamins C and E, potassium and calcium than NA. Sodium and cholesterol intake was highly above the RDA in every group. Surprisingly, sodium intake of NA was even higher than PA in females (5535±1282 mg/day vs. 5068±2028 mg/day; P<0.05). In addition, iron intake of women was less than two-third of RDA in both groups. In summary, the dietary habits of elite athletes showed many misconceptions and lack of proper nutrition in terms of quality. These findings point out the need for adequate education of athletes and trainers to provide optimal food choice and for continuous monitoring of dietary pattern to maximize exercise performance and improve recovery.