Authors:D. Xu, Q. L. Ning, X. Zhou, C. L. Chen, X. L. Tan, A. D. Wu, and X. Wang
Effects of ionic strength and of fulvic acid on the sorption of Eu(III) on alumina were investigated by using a batch technique.
The experiments were carried out at T=25±1 °C, pH 4-6 and in the presence of 1M NaCl. The results indicate that sorption isotherms of Eu(III) are linear at low
pH values. The sorption-desorption of Eu(III) on alumina at pH 4.4 is reversible, but a sorption-desorption hysteresis is
found at pH 5.0. Fulvic acid has an obvious positive effect on the sorption of Eu(III) on alumina at low pH values. The migration
of Eu(III) in alumina was studied by using column experiments and 152+154Eu(III) radiotracer at pH 3.8. For column experiments, Eu(III) sorbed on alumina can be desorbed completely from the solid
surface at low pH values. The findings are relevant to the evaluation of lanthanide and actinide ions in the environment.
Authors:Z. L. Li, D. D. Wu, H. Y. Li, G. Chen, W. G. Cao, S. Z. Ning, D. C. Liu, and L. Q. Zhang
Gliadin is a main component of gluten proteins that affect functional properties of bread making and contributes to the viscous nature of doughs. In this study, thirteen novel ω-gliadin genes were identified in several Triticum species, which encode the ARH-, ATDand ATN-type proteins. Two novel types of ω-gliadins: ATD- and ATN- have not yet been reported. The lengths of 13 sequences were ranged from 927 to 1269 bp and the deduced mature proteins were varied from 309 to 414 residues. All 13 genes were pseudogenes because of the presence of internal stop codons. The primary structure of these ω-gliadin genes included a signal peptide, a conserved N-terminal domain, a repetitive domain and a conserved C-terminus. In this paper, we first characterize ω-gliadin genes from T. timopheevi ssp. timopheevi and T. timopheevi ssp. araraticum. The ω-gliadin gene variation and the evolutionary relationship of ω-gliadin family genes were also discussed.
Authors:X. Zheng, Y. Yu, G. Xiao, Y. Xu, J. Wu, D. Tang, Y. Cheng, and Y. Zhang
Changes in microbial population, pH, sugar, organic acid, anthocyanins, total soluble phenolics, and anti-glucosidase contents were measured during fermentation of mulberry juice at 30 °C by probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides showing rapid growth after an approximately 1-day lag phase and reaching a maximum of 8.6 log CFU ml−1 after 4 d. During the rapid growth phase, the main mulberry juice sugars, glucose and fructose, were largely consumed, and the acidic metabolites, lactic acid and acetic acid, were produced accordingly. A slow decrease in the concentration of the main organic acid, citric acid, was also observed during fermentation. After 4 d fermentation, anthocyanin content showed a 44.4% reduction, but the total amount of soluble phenolics and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity showed no significant changes (P>0.05). This suggests that L. mesenteroides fermentation of mulberry juice is a good strategy to enhance its probiotic value and to decrease the sugar content without changing the anti-glucosidase activity, which is required to reduce postprandial rise in blood glucose.
Authors:Y. Li, F.Q. Lu, Y. Feng, Z.D. He, and X.L. Wu
Analysis of the binding interaction of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and pepsin is important for understanding the inhibition of digestive enzymes by tea polyphenols. We studied the binding of EGCG to pepsin using fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and protein-ligand docking. We found that EGCG could inhibit pepsin activity. According to thermodynamic parameters, a negative ΔG indicated that the interaction between EGCG and pepsin was spontaneous, and the electrostatic force accompanied by hydrophobic binding forces may play major role in the binding. Data from multi-spectroscopy and docking studies suggest that EGCG could bind pepsin with a change in the native conformation of pepsin. Our results provide further understanding of the nature of the binding interactions between catechins and digestive enzymes.
Authors:G.P. Li, D. Zhou, L.N. Kan, Y.W. Wu, J.F. Fan, and J. Ouyang
The inhibitory effects of phytic acid (PA) on the browning of fresh-cut chestnuts and the associated mechanisms of PA on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were investigated. The enzymatic browning of chestnut surfaces and interiors was suppressed by soaking shelled and sliced chestnuts in a PA solution. The specific activities of PPO and POD extracted from chestnuts declined due to inhibition by PA. PA was determined to be a competitive inhibitor of both PPO and POD by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The binding modes of PA with PPO and POD were analysed by AutoDock 4.2.
Authors:L. Zhang, X. Shu, X. Wang, H. Lu, Q. Shu, and D. Wu
Five giant embryo mutants, described as
MH-gel, MH-ge2, MH-ge3, MH-ge4
, which were derived from the same indica rice
. ‘Minghui 86’ and characterized by 2.0, 1.88, 2.08, 1.93 and 1.88 times enlarged embryo than that of wild type, were selected for the current study. The mutated giant embryos were controlled by a single recessive gene, and except mutated locus with
other four loci were allelic to each other and the previous reported locus
in japonica rice
. ‘Kinmaze’. No obvious differences in physicochemical properties such as apparent amylose content (AAC), alkali spreading value (ASV), gel consistency (GC), and starch paste viscosity were observed between giant embryo mutants and wild type. Significant increases in the contents of crude lipid (LC), crude protein (PC), Vitamin B1 (V
), Vitamin B2 (V
), Vitamin E (V
), essential amino acids such as Arginine (Arg), Aspartic acid (Asp), Glutamic acid (Glu), Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), and mineral elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) were detected in brown rice (BR) of giant embryo mutants. The amounts of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, were similar in the BR of giant embryo mutants and wild type, and more GABA content was observed in germinated brown rice (GBR) than BR. Significant enrichments were detected in the GBR of giant embryo mutants, basically corresponding to the enlarged embryo.
Authors:D. Lin, M. Lin, M. Lin, Y. Wu, H. Wang, and Y. Chen
The —T and d/dT—T curves of the FeCuNbSiB amorphous alloy, which are the relationship between the total saturated magnetic moment per unit mass and temperature, are investigated by magnetic thermogravimetry analysis (TG(M)) technique. It is found that the crystallization process of the samples can be divided into five stages. The studies of samples annealed in temperature range of 480–610°C for 1h show that when the annealing temperature (Ta) is less than 540°C, the quantity of nanocrystalline -Fe(Si) phase increases evidently with Ta, and the Curie temperature (TC) of residual amorphous phase also increases linearly with Ta, i.e. TC=0.52Ta+91.7°C, with correlation coefficient =0.98. The variation of volume fraction of -Fe(Si) nanocrystalline phase or residual amorphous phase with Ta is measured by TG(M) technique.
Authors:Q. Wu, S. Göbölös, D. S. Thakur, F. Delannay, and B. Delmon
Precursors of unsupported NiMo and FeMo sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts with concentration ratiosr=Ni(Fe)/(Ni(Fe) + Mo) ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 were prepared by three methods: homogeneous sulfide precipitation (HSP), inverse HSP and coprecipitation. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the decomposition under argon, and the reduction/sulfidation under 15% H2S—H2 of the precursors and the subsequent oxidation under air of the samples obtained after these reactions. The reactivity of the solids varies as a function of the preparation method, the nature of the promoter and the concentration ratio. The degree of sulfidation of the precursor and the presence of either NH4NO3 or NH2Cl formed from group VIII metal salts and (NH4)2S may affect the thermal behaviour of samples during DTA.
Authors:Zong Quan Wu, V. L. Dann, S. Z. D. Cheng, and B. Wunderlich
In an effort to find the limit of crystallization of polypropylene, a series of quantitative and semiquantitative DSC experiments at rates up to 10,000 deg/min are described. Even at these fast rates polypropylene crystallized on cooling between 350±15 K and 280±6 K. No “fully amorphous” polypropylene was produced. No initial stage crystallization to the condis state could be proven by quenching after partial crystallization.
Authors:Tzu-Yi Wu, Chung-Ying Lin, Kristofer Årestedt, Mark D. Griffiths, Anders Broström, and Amir H. Pakpour
Background and aims
The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGDS-SF9) is brief and effective to evaluate Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) severity. Although its scores show promising psychometric properties, less is known about whether different groups of gamers interpret the items similarly. This study aimed to verify the construct validity of the Persian IGDS-SF9 and examine the scores in relation to gender and hours spent online gaming among 2,363 Iranian adolescents.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis were used to examine the construct validity of the IGDS-SF9. The effects of gender and time spent online gaming per week were investigated by multigroup CFA and Rasch differential item functioning (DIF).
The unidimensionality of the IGDS-SF9 was supported in both CFA and Rasch. However, Item 4 (fail to control or cease gaming activities) displayed DIF (DIF contrast = 0.55) slightly over the recommended cutoff in Rasch but was invariant in multigroup CFA across gender. Items 4 (DIF contrast = −0.67) and 9 (jeopardize or lose an important thing because of gaming activity; DIF contrast = 0.61) displayed DIF in Rasch and were non-invariant in multigroup CFA across time spent online gaming.
Given the Persian IGDS-SF9 was unidimensional, it is concluded that the instrument can be used to assess IGD severity. However, users of the instrument are cautioned concerning the comparisons of the sum scores of the IGDS-SF9 across gender and across adolescents spending different amounts of time online gaming.