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The inhibitory effects of phytic acid (PA) on the browning of fresh-cut chestnuts and the associated mechanisms of PA on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were investigated. The enzymatic browning of chestnut surfaces and interiors was suppressed by soaking shelled and sliced chestnuts in a PA solution. The specific activities of PPO and POD extracted from chestnuts declined due to inhibition by PA. PA was determined to be a competitive inhibitor of both PPO and POD by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The binding modes of PA with PPO and POD were analysed by AutoDock 4.2.

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Analysis of the binding interaction of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and pepsin is important for understanding the inhibition of digestive enzymes by tea polyphenols. We studied the binding of EGCG to pepsin using fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and protein-ligand docking. We found that EGCG could inhibit pepsin activity. According to thermodynamic parameters, a negative ΔG indicated that the interaction between EGCG and pepsin was spontaneous, and the electrostatic force accompanied by hydrophobic binding forces may play major role in the binding. Data from multi-spectroscopy and docking studies suggest that EGCG could bind pepsin with a change in the native conformation of pepsin. Our results provide further understanding of the nature of the binding interactions between catechins and digestive enzymes.

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Host plant resistance in the form of wheat with the stem lumen filled with pith has been the main strategy to manage the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) - a major pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. Recently a new source of resistance has been made available combining a single dominant solid pith gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) with spring bread wheat cultivars. Our study had two objectives: (i) assess levels of C. cinctus damage and larval C. cinctus mortality in wheat with the novel solid germplasm, conventional solid-stems and susceptible cultivars; and (ii) determine plant genotype effects on populations of C. cinctus parasitoid Bracon cephi (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The study was conducted in plots near Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada from 2003–2005. The novel solid-stemmed hexaploid G9608B1-L12J11BF02, solid-stemmed AC Eatonia and hollow-stemmed durum AC Navigator reduced the infestation level and girdling damage by C. cinctus. Another synthetic hexaploid B9973B03&AC4AW, hollow-stemmed AC Cadillac, McKenzie and AC Barrie were more susceptible to C. cinctus damage. Larval parasitism by B. cephi increased along with C. cinctus infestation levels. Stem solidness itself, regardless of source, had no direct negative effect on B. cephi but due to lower infestation and survival of C. cinctus in solid stem genotypes, the overall population of parasitoids was reduced. When planting monocultures of effective solid stem wheat, strategies to conserve populations of parasitoids should be considered for long term sustainable management of C. cinctus.

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Abstract  

The aim of this paper is to consider using effective natural minerals in studying the retardation and migration of radium under the influence of groundwater in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository. The properties of adsorbing radium by minerals are studied by adopting the static and dynamic adsorption method. Preliminary experimental results give confidence in the validity of using Maifanshih and barite to adsorb radium in water and to serve as effective retarding materials in radioactive waste repositories, their Kd values being 3815 and 2955, respectively. The study on a certain number of conditions of adsorbing radium by the promissing material Maifanshih is reported for the first time. The mechanism of radium adsorption has been discussed and modeling of migration of radium in the minerals has been presented to establish a rational basis for the longterm prediction required for safety assessment of underground disposal of radioactive waste.

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A rapid method has been used for simultaneous identification of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BGE.) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). A total of 58 compounds extracted by methanol were detected and tentatively identified within 20 min, including hydrophilic phenolics, lipophilic diterpenoids, a verbascose, and several organic acids. These compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and identified based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns under the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Among them, micranthin B and 9-oxo-10E,12Zoctadecadienoic acid were reported in RSM for the first time. Their fragmentation patterns in electrospray ionization (ESI)—MS/MS spectra were first investigated by matching their accurate molecular masses. This contribution presented one of the first reports on the analysis of hydrophilic phenolics and lipophilic diterpenoids from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The results demonstrated that UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could be applied to rapidly and expediently describe and provide comprehensive chemical information for simultaneous analysis of two different polar components in RSM.

Open access
Cereal Research Communications
Authors: D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser, and J. Wu

Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.

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Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.

Methods

Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.

Discussion and conclusions

Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.

Open access
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Mori, T. Suzuki, S. Koido, A. Uritani, H. Miyahara, K. Yanagida, Y. Wu, K. Nishizawa, M. Yoshida, F. Takahashi, and J. Miyahara

Abstract  

Distribution images of natural radioactivity in natural materials such as vegetables were obtained by using Imaging Plate. In such cases, it is necessary to reduce background radiation intensity by one order or more. Graded shielding is very important. Especially, the innermost surface of a shielding box should be covered with acrylic resin plate. We obtained natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetables, sea food, meat etc. Mostly -rays emitted from40K print the radioactivity distribution image. Comparison between -ray intensity of KCl solution measured with HPGe detector and that of natural material specimen gave the radioactivity around 0.060.4 Bq/g depending on the kind and the part of specimens.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental illness. Cognitive and emotional illness representations affect coping and health outcomes. Very little is known about such perceptions related to IGD, in both general and diseased populations. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for IGD in a general population that included mostly non-cases while a small proportion of the sample was IGD cases.

Methods

An anonymous cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of 1,501 Chinese community-dwelling adults (41.3% male; mean age = 40.42, SD = 16.85) in Macao, China.

Results

The confirmatory factor analysis identified a modified 6-factor model (i.e., timeline cyclical, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, and emotional representations) of 26 items that showed satisfactory model fit and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity was supported by the constructs' significant correlations with stigma (positive correlations: timeline cyclical, consequence, emotional representations; negative correlations: illness coherence). Ever-gamers, compared to never-gamers, reported higher mean scores in the subscales of personal control and illness coherence, and lower mean scores in time cyclical, consequence, and emotional representations. Among the sampled gamers, probable IGD cases were more likely than non-IGD cases to perceive IGD as cyclical and involved more negative emotions.

Conclusions

This study shows that the revised 26-item version of IPQ-R is a valid instrument for assessing illness representation regarding IGD in a general population of Chinese adults. It can be used in future research that examines factors of incidence and prevention related to IGD.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Joseph T. F. Lau, Danielle L. Walden, Anise M. S. Wu, Kit-man Cheng, Mason C. M. Lau, and Phoenix K. H. Mo

Background and aims

The aim of the study is to investigate (a) whether probable depression status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of Internet addiction (IA) at the 12-month follow-up and (b) whether IA status assessed at baseline prospectively predicted new incidence of probable depression at follow-up.

Methods

We conducted a 12-month cohort study (n = 8,286) among Hong Kong secondary students, and derived two subsamples. The first subsample (n = 6,954) included students who were non-IA at baseline, using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (≤63), and another included non-depressed cases at baseline (n = 3,589), using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (<16).

Results

In the first subsample, 11.5% of the non-IA cases developed IA during follow-up, and probable depression status at baseline significantly predicted new incidence of IA [severe depression: adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.50, 95% CI = 2.07, 3.01; moderate: ORa = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.45, 2.28; mild: ORa = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32, 2.05; reference: non-depressed], after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. In the second subsample, 38.9% of those non-depressed participants developed probable depression during follow-up. Adjusted analysis showed that baseline IA status also significantly predicted new incidence of probable depression (ORa = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.09).

Discussion and conclusions

The high incidence of probable depression is a concern that warrants interventions, as depression has lasting harmful effects in adolescents. Baseline probable depression predicted IA at follow-up and vice versa, among those who were free from IA/probable depression at baseline. Healthcare workers, teachers, and parents need to be made aware of this bidirectional finding. Interventions, both IA and depression prevention, should thus take both problems into consideration.

Open access