Authors:W.-Y. Liu, Sh.-L. Xie, X.-Zh. Xu, Ch.-Y. Wu, and F. Feng
Oroxylin A (5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), which has showed multiple pharmacological effects, was semi-synthesized chemically as a pharmaceutical agent. Its impurities, degradation products and their formation pathways remain unknown. In the present study, two impurities (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxytlavone) and a degradation product (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone) in Oroxylin A bulk drug substance were identified, and their formation pathways were proposed. A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Oroxylin A and the three compounds was developed on a C18 column using methanol-acetonitrile-0.1% acetic acid (54:23:23, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed at 271 nm. The method was validated to be robust, precise, specific and linear between 4 and 40 μg mL−1; the limits of detection and quantification of Oroxylin A were 0.01 and 0.04 μg mL−1, respectively. The developed method was found to be suitable to check the quality of bulk samples of Oroxylin A at the time of batch release and also during its stability studies (long term and accelerated stability).
Authors:W.-Y. Liu, M.-L. Wei, C.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, F. Feng, and N. Xie
Patrinia scabra Bunge has long been used in clinic as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating leukemia and cancer and regulating host immune response. Despite their wide use in China, no report on system analysis on their chemical constituents is available so far. The current study was designed to profile the fingerprint of ethyl acetate extract of it, and in addition, to characterize the major fingerprint peaks and determine their quantity. Therefore, a detailed gradient high-performance liquid chromatography was described to separate more than 30 compounds with satisfactory resolution in P. scabra Bunge. Based on the chromatograms of 10 batches samples, a typical high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint was established with 23 chromatographic peaks being assigned as common fingerprint peaks. Furthermore, a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) was coupled for the characterization of major compound. As (+)-nortrachelogenin was the most predominant compound in P. scabra Bunge, the quantification on it was also carried out with the method being validated. As a result, (+)-nortrachelogenin was found to be from 1.33 to 2.21 mg g−1 in this plant material. This rapid and effective analytical method could be employed for quality assessment of P. scabra Bunge, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material.
Authors:Anise M. S. Wu, Juliet Honglei Chen, Kwok-Kit Tong, Shu Yu, and Joseph T. F. Lau
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested.
A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40.0) was surveyed using a telephone poll design from October to November 2016.
The estimated prevalence of probable IGD was 2.0% of the overall sample and 4.3% among the recent gamers (n = 473), with no statistically significant sex and age effects observed (p > .05). The two most prevalent IGD symptoms were mood modification and continued engagement, despite negative consequences. Probable IGD respondents were more vulnerable to psychological distress (25.0% and 45.0% for moderate or above levels of depression and anxiety, respectively) than their non-IGD counterparts. They also reported a lower level of psychological resilience than non-IGD respondents. No significant buffering effect of the two character strength variables on the distress–IGD relationship was found.
Discussion and conclusions
These results provide empirical evidence that IGD is a mental health threat not only to adolescents but also to adults. IGD was significantly associated with psychological distress, which should be addressed in conjunction with IGD symptoms in interventions. Inclusion of gamers of both sexes and different age groups in future prevention programs is also recommended.
Authors:Q. Wu, S. Göbölös, D. S. Thakur, F. Delannay, and B. Delmon
Precursors of unsupported NiMo and FeMo sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts with concentration ratiosr=Ni(Fe)/(Ni(Fe) + Mo) ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 were prepared by three methods: homogeneous sulfide precipitation (HSP), inverse HSP and coprecipitation. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the decomposition under argon, and the reduction/sulfidation under 15% H2S—H2 of the precursors and the subsequent oxidation under air of the samples obtained after these reactions. The reactivity of the solids varies as a function of the preparation method, the nature of the promoter and the concentration ratio. The degree of sulfidation of the precursor and the presence of either NH4NO3 or NH2Cl formed from group VIII metal salts and (NH4)2S may affect the thermal behaviour of samples during DTA.
Authors:S.T. Yang, X. Wu, W. Rui, J. Guo, and Y.F. Feng
A rapid method has been used for simultaneous identification of both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM, the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza BGE.) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). A total of 58 compounds extracted by methanol were detected and tentatively identified within 20 min, including hydrophilic phenolics, lipophilic diterpenoids, a verbascose, and several organic acids. These compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and identified based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns under the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Among them, micranthin B and 9-oxo-10E,12Zoctadecadienoic acid were reported in RSM for the first time. Their fragmentation patterns in electrospray ionization (ESI)—MS/MS spectra were first investigated by matching their accurate molecular masses. This contribution presented one of the first reports on the analysis of hydrophilic phenolics and lipophilic diterpenoids from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The results demonstrated that UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could be applied to rapidly and expediently describe and provide comprehensive chemical information for simultaneous analysis of two different polar components in RSM.
Authors:D. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Tar, Y. Zhang, F. Ni, J. Ren, D. Fu, L. Purnhauser, and J. Wu
Stripe or yellow rust (Yr), caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Pst), is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide. New aggressive Pst races can spread quickly, even between countries and continents. To identify and exploit stripe rust resistance genes, breeders must characterize first the Pst resistance and genotypes of their cultivars. To find new sources of resistances it is important to study how wheat varieties respond to Pst races that predominate in other continents. In this study we evaluated stripe rust resistance in 53 Hungarian winter wheat cultivars in China. Twenty-four cultivars (45.3%) had all stage resistance (ASR) and 1 (1.9%) had adult-plant resistance (APR), based on seedling tests in growth chambers and adult-plant tests in fields. We molecularly genotyped six Yr resistance genes: Yr5, Yr10, Yr15, Yr17, Yr18, and Yr36. Yr18, an APR gene, was present alone in five cultivars, and in ‘GK Kapos’, that also had seedling resistance. The other five Yr genes were absent in all cultivars tested.
Authors:Anise M. S. Wu, Mark H. C. Lai, Shu Yu, Joseph T. F. Lau, and Man-wai Lei
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.
Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.
The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.
Authors:C. Mori, T. Suzuki, S. Koido, A. Uritani, H. Miyahara, K. Yanagida, Y. Wu, K. Nishizawa, M. Yoshida, F. Takahashi, and J. Miyahara
Distribution images of natural radioactivity in natural materials such as vegetables were obtained by using Imaging Plate. In such cases, it is necessary to reduce background radiation intensity by one order or more. Graded shielding is very important. Especially, the innermost surface of a shielding box should be covered with acrylic resin plate. We obtained natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetables, sea food, meat etc. Mostly -rays emitted from40K print the radioactivity distribution image. Comparison between -ray intensity of KCl solution measured with HPGe detector and that of natural material specimen gave the radioactivity around 0.060.4 Bq/g depending on the kind and the part of specimens.
Authors:J. Lu, G.Z. Ji, G. Li, Y.F. Wu, J. Yang, S.L. Lin, D.L. Yang, J.N. Zhao, and W.M. Xiu
Global rice supplies have been found contaminated with unapproved varieties of genetically modified (GM) rice in recent years, which has led to product recalls in several of countries. Faster and more effective detection of GM contamination can prevent adulterated food, feed and seed from being consumed and grown, minimize the potential environmental, health or economic damage. In this study, a simple, reliable and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identifying genetic modifications of TT51-1, Kemingdao1 (KMD1) and Kefeng6 (KF6) rice was developed by using the event-specific fragment. The limit of detection (LOD) for each event in the multiplex PCR is approximately 0.1%. Developed multiplex PCR assays can provide a rapid and simultaneous detection of GM rice.
Authors:Joseph T. F. Lau, Le Dang, Ray Y. H. Cheung, Meng Xuan Zhang, Juliet Honglei Chen, and Anise M. S. Wu
Background and aims
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental illness. Cognitive and emotional illness representations affect coping and health outcomes. Very little is known about such perceptions related to IGD, in both general and diseased populations. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for IGD in a general population that included mostly non-cases while a small proportion of the sample was IGD cases.
An anonymous cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in a random sample of 1,501 Chinese community-dwelling adults (41.3% male; mean age = 40.42, SD = 16.85) in Macao, China.
The confirmatory factor analysis identified a modified 6-factor model (i.e., timeline cyclical, consequences, personal control, treatment control, illness coherence, and emotional representations) of 26 items that showed satisfactory model fit and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity was supported by the constructs' significant correlations with stigma (positive correlations: timeline cyclical, consequence, emotional representations; negative correlations: illness coherence). Ever-gamers, compared to never-gamers, reported higher mean scores in the subscales of personal control and illness coherence, and lower mean scores in time cyclical, consequence, and emotional representations. Among the sampled gamers, probable IGD cases were more likely than non-IGD cases to perceive IGD as cyclical and involved more negative emotions.
This study shows that the revised 26-item version of IPQ-R is a valid instrument for assessing illness representation regarding IGD in a general population of Chinese adults. It can be used in future research that examines factors of incidence and prevention related to IGD.