Authors:Y. Gautam, A. Sharma, S. Sharma, K. Rao, J. Kumar, V. Kumar, B. Singh, A. Kumar, and A. Hedge
Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains
tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004–2008 shows a large
variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2–91.6 Bq m−3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site
locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 × 10−7–7.3 × 10−7 s m−3. The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 × 104 to 14.1 × 104 (Bq m−3 rain water per Bq m−3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6–30 km) from NAPS site was found to be
ranged from 0.08–0.21 μSv year−1.
Authors:S. H. Basagoudanavar, J. R. Rao, Swati Omanwar, A. K. Tiwari, R. K. Singh, R. S. Kataria, and G. Butchaiah
A highly reproducible, dominant, monomorphic fragment of 473 base pair (bp) amplified from the genome of Trypanosoma evansi by arbitrary primer — polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) was labelled with digoxigenin and investigated for its potential as DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridisation of total genomic DNA with the probe proved useful in detecting bubaline, cameline and equine strains of T. evansi down to 10 pg of parasite template DNA. No cross-hybridisation was seen with Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata and the bubaline host DNA. This probe may facilitate laboratory identification of T. evansi in developing countries, without the inherent risk associated with radioisotopes.
Authors:J.F.F. Anderson, M.C.G. Gerlin, R.A. Sversut, L.C.S. Oliveira, A.K. Singh, M.S. Amaral, and N.M. Kassab
The objective of this study was to develop and validate an assay method for simultaneous determination of atenolol, furosemide, losartan, and spironolactone in pharmaceutical formulations. A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography procedure was developed, using a Kinetex® C-18 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm). The mobile phase was composed of methanol—water (75:25 v/v, pH 3.0, adjusted with phosphoric acid), with a flow rate of 0.4 mL min−1. All drugs were separated in less than 5 min. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) guidelines. The method showed linearity in a concentration range of 0.75–12.0 μg mL−1 for atenolol (r = 0.9995), 0.30–12.00 μg mL−1 for furosemide (r = 0.9997), 0.45–12.00 μg mL−1 for losartan (r = 0.9995), and 0.45–12.0 μg mL−1 for spironolactone (r = 0.9999). The method also showed repeatability and precision. The three-day average intra-day precisions were 101.35 ± 0.74% for atenolol, 95.84 ± 1.44% for furosemide, 98.90 ± 1.16% for losartan, and 97.19 ± 0.18% for spironolactone. Similarly, the inter-day precisions were 101.34 ± 0.72% for atenolol, 95.84 ± 0.1.50% for furosemide, 98.90 ± 1.17% for losartan, and 97.19 ± 0.83% for spironolactone. The method accuracy was also tested and validated — in this case, the average recovery values were 100.18 ± 1.20% for atenolol, 99.83 ± 1.54% for furosemide, 100.07 ± 0.95% for losartan, and 99.94 ± 0.93% for spironolactone. Finally, the method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of atenolol, furosemide, losartan, and spironolactone in magisterial formulas, as well as in commercial pharmaceutical formulations.
Authors:B. Kumar, K.S. Hooda, R. Gogoi, V. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Abhishek, P. Bhati, J.C. Sekhar, K.R. Yathish, V. Singh, A. Das, G. Mukri, E. Varghese, H. Kaur, V. Malik, and O.P. Yadav
Maydis leaf blight (MLB), a serious foliar fungal disease of maize, may cause up to 40% losses in yield. The present studies were undertaken to identify the stable sources of MLB resistance, its inheritance study, and testing of MLB resistance linked markers from diverse background in the Indian adapted tropical maize genotypes. A set of 112 inbred lines were screened under artificially created epiphytotics conditions at three hotspot locations. Analysis across multi-locations revealed significant effects of genotypes and environments, and non-significant effects due to genotypes × environment interaction on disease incidence. A total of 25 inbred lines with stable resistance were identified across multi-locations. Inheritance of resistance was studied in six F1s and two F2s of resistant and susceptible parents. The null hypothesis of segregation of resistance and susceptible for mono and digenic ratios in two F2 populations was rejected by Chi-square test. The non-significant differences among the reciprocal crosses depicted the complete control of nuclear genome for MLB resistance. Partial dominance in F1s and normal distribution pattern in F2s of resistant and susceptible parents suggested polygenic nature of MLB resistance. Correlation studies in F2 populations exhibited significant negative correlation between disease score and days to flowering. Five simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers, found associated to MLB resistance in different studies were unable to differentiate amongst MLB resistance and susceptible parents in our study. This emphasizes the need of fine mapping for MLB resistance in Indian germplasm. The identified stable sources of resistance and information on inheritance study can be used further in strengthening of resistance breeding against MLB.