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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: K. Tung, J. Liu, F. Cheng, C. Yang, W. Tu, K. Wang, C. Shyu, C. Lai, C. Chou, and W. Lee

Isospora michaelbakeri is one of the Isospora species most commonly found in the wild field, which can cause severe infection and mortality in young sparrows. In this study, we selected I. michaelbakeri (Chung Hsing strain) as a pathogen to orally inoculate russet sparrows ( Passer rutilans ), spotted munia ( Lonchura punctulata ), canary ( Serinus canaria ), Java sparrows ( Padda oryzivora ), chicken ( Gallus domesticus ), ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) and BALB/c mice. The results indicated that I. michaelbakeri infected only russet sparrows. Infected sparrows displayed lethargy, muscular weakness and fluffy feathers, followed by rapid death. Liver and spleen enlargement was seen in the infected birds. Schizonts were identified in thin smears from the venous blood, enlarged livers and spleens. Histopathological examination revealed schizonts and merozoites from the liver and spleen of infected russet sparrows, but not from other species experimentally inoculated with I. michaelbakeri in the present study.

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Electronic stopping power of 19F in Ni, Pd and Gd was measured and compared to Mstar and SRIM calculation as well as experimental results published in literature. It turns out that the present electronic stopping power agrees reasonably well with them.

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In 1951, 6.7 liters of an aqueous acidic solution of irradiated uranium (360 GBq) leaked from a buried storage tank into unsaturated prairie soil, where it has remained, undisturbed. In October 2001, sonic drilling was conducted to recover core samples around and below the tank location. This paper describes the measurements and investigative approaches being pursued to determine the transport properties of the various fission and daughter products and actinides. Separate effects laboratory experiments are also being conducted involving both inert and radioactive samples in similar soil, to examine the effects on transport properties (diffusion and sorption) of temperature, recharge and discharge rates, concentration and soil porosity. Finally, transport modeling approaches are discussed.

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The distribution coefficients,K d of 36 elements from Na to Bi on a silica were determined at pH 4, 7, 9 and in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) using a multitracer technique. The multitracer solution was prepared by irradiation of Th(NO3)4 with 40Ar ion beam. The effects of pH and fulvic acid on the K d values of 36 elements were studied. It was found that the sequences of the K d values of alkali elements (Cs>Rb>K>Na) and of alkaline earth elements(Ba>Ca>Mg) in the absence of FA can be qualitatively explained in terms of chemical bond formation and hydration. Various effects of pH and the negative or positive effect of FA on the adsorption of 36 elements were observed and are probably related to the species of 36 elements in the aqueous solutions containing CO3 2–, OH, Cl and FA. For most of the elements studied here the K d values are increased with increasing pH and are decreased with adding FA.

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We have developed a multi-channel measurement system for combinatorial investigation of thermoelectric materials. The measurement apparatus has ten series of pin-probe array which enables us to measure the Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity of 10 samples simultaneously. A successful measurement on a composition-spread thin films library indicated that this measurement system is highly useful for the high-speed exploration of thermoelectric materials by combinatorial approach.

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The relative thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured in the inner and outer irradiation sites of three Slowpoke reactors and one Miniature Neutron Source (MNS) reactor by the bare triple monitor method. Using the measured neutron spectrum parameters and a compilation of published k 0 and Q 0 values, activation constants were calculated for the most intense gamma-rays of all nuclides commonly used in NAA. The resulting table of constants can be used to standardize NAA measurements for all elements when combined with relative efficiency measurements and the measurement of the thermal neutron flux with one standard. The observed constancy of the neutron spectra suggests that these activation constants are valid for all 14 Slowpoke and MNS reactors.

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The extraction of cobalt by Winsor II microemulsion system was studied. In the bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)/n-pentanol/n-heptane/NaCl system, AOT was used as a anionic surfactant to form microemulsion in n-heptane, n-pentanol was injected in the microemulsion as a cosurfactant. Co(II) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as Co2+(R–SO3 )Cl. The influence of different parameters such as the volume ratio of aqueous phase to microemulsion, surfactant concentration, pH of the feed solutions, cosurfactant concentration as well as temperature on the extraction yield (E%) were investigated. The results showed that it was possible to extract 95% of cobalt by the AOT Winsor II microemulsion.

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Cleavage of glucosinolates with myrosinase yields thioglycosidic compounds which have cancer chemoprevention activity. In this paper, glucosinolates in an extract (2.0 g) of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) with the solvent system n-butanol-acetonitrile-10% ammonium sulfate solution 1:0.5:2.2 (v/v) to yield five glucosinolate compounds after desalting and decolorizing by MCI column chromatography. The five compounds, 7-methylsulfinylheptyl glucosinolate (22.4 mg), 4-pentenyl glucosinolate (33.6 mg), 3-butenyl glucosinolate (24.0 mg), 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate (161.4 mg), and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl glucosinolate (29.6 mg), were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The purity of the products was >98%, and 7-methylsulfinylheptyl glucosinolate was obtained from broccoli seeds for the first time.

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In this paper, 633 species (involving 10 classes, 48 families, 205 genera) collected from the alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau were studied. We tested potential factors affecting variation in mean germination time (MGT), i.e., plant traits (adult longevity, dispersal mode and seed size) or phylogeny, to evaluate if these factors were independent or they had interaction. Nested ANOVA showed that taxonomic membership accounted for the majority of MGT variation (70%), and in the generalized linear model, family membership could explain independently the largest proportion of MGT variation (29%). The strong taxonomic effect suggests that MGT variation within taxonomic membership is constrained. The other plant traits could also explain MGT variation independently (1% by adult longevity and dispersal mode, respectively, and 2% by seed size). Thus, the phylogeny was an important constraint to maintain the stability of species, and we could simplify the question if we regarded the phylogeny as an individual factor, but we could not negate the adaptive significance of the relationship between other plant traits and seed MGT. In addition, a large percentage of the variance remained unexplained by our model, thus important selective factors or parameters may have been left out of this analysis. We suggest that other possible correlates may exist between seed germination time and additional ecological factors (for example, altitude, habitat and post-dispersal predation) or phylogenetic related morphological and physiological seed attributes (e.g., endosperm mass) that were not evaluated in this study.

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The processes of nucleation of Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses with TiO2 and TiO2+ZrO2 as nucleating agents were discussed. The DTA peak temperature and DTA peak height shown a strong dependence on the nucleation temperature in the glass with TiO2, while in the glass with TiO2+ZrO2 this tendency was small. The optimum nucleation temperatures were 745 and 760°C for two glasses. It suggested that with TiO2+ZrO2 as nucleating agents, the crystallization had lower sensitivity for nucleation temperature, and the glass had higher nucleation efficiency than with TiO2.

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