Authors:Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Amal M. Saad, Laila A. Refahy, and Ahmed A. Hamed
Eight compounds were isolated and identified from the soil-inhabiting fungus Aspergillus fumigatus 3T-EGY, namely, stearic acid (1), α-linolenic acid (2), physcion (3), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (4), 2,4,5,17-tetramethoxy pradimicin lactone (5), 3,5-dihydroxy-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoyl-2H-chromen-2-one (6), juglanthraquinone A-5-O-d-rhodosamine-(4′→1″)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (4″→1″′)-cinerulose B (7), and micropeptin (8). Their structures were determined on the basis of one-dimensional (1D-) and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) [1H-, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY (COrrelated SpectroscopY), and 1H-13C HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation) spectroscopy]. Compound 7 showed moderate in vitro antimicrobial activity against three pathogenic strains with inhibition zones values were ranged from 9.0 to 10.66 mm compared to neomycin as a positive control with inhibition zones values were ranged from 14.0 to 19.0 mm.
Authors:Ashraf Mohamed, H. Amer, S. Shawky, M. El-Tahawy, and A. Kandil
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is known to accumulate elements from rivers and a good tool for water monitoring. To test the usefulness of such an aquatic
plant as a bioindicator, we have determined the levels of Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu,
Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U in water hyacinth around industrial facilities and along the studied area by instrumental neutron
activation analysis. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb were determined in upstream river water
and effluent factories. Contamination factor, and pollution load index was calculated. The results show that higher concentrations
as well as bioaccumulation factors of these elements were observed in water hyacinth samples around the industrial facilities.
On the other hand a decrease in calcium concentration was observed as a result of the thermal pollution of Nile river water.
The pollution load index for the studied area was estimated to be 4.2.
Authors:Hebatallah M. Essam, Martin N. Saad, Eman S. Elzanfaly, and Sawsan M. Amer
A sensitive RP-HPLC method is presented for the simultaneous quantification of Fluorometholone (FLM) and Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THZ). The method has the advantages of being rapid, accurate, reproducible, ecologically acceptable and sensitive. The separation utilized C8 Xbridge® column and mobile phase mixture of Acetonitrile/phosphate buffer pH 3 ± 0.1 (70:30, v/v) with UV detection at 230 nm. Stepwise optimization and factors affecting separation are properly discussed. Different factors were optimized such as stationary phase, selection of organic solvent and its content, buffer pH and concentration, flow rate, elution type and detection wavelength. The studied drugs were efficiently separated in 3.4 min with high resolution. Also, two univariate spectrophotometric methods have been optimized for the quantification of the studied drugs. Method 1: dual wavelength for THZ and iso-absorptive point for FLM, Method 2: ratio difference (RD) for THZ and first derivative FLM utilizing methanol as a solvent. These methods are accurate, precise with minimal data manipulation. Greenness of the methods was estimated using eco-scale tool where the presented methods were found to be excellent green with eco-score of 83 for HPLC and 80 for spectrophotometry. The methods are validated in conformance with ICH guidelines, with acceptable accuracy, precision, and selectivity. The suggested methods can be employed for the economic analysis of THZ and FLM in their pure form and binary ophthalmic formulation, that can be employed by quality control laboratories.
Authors:Shakeel Ahmed, Faizur Rahman, Adnan M. J. Al-Amer, Eid M. Al-Mutairi, Uwais Baduruthamal, and Khurshid Alam
A series of metal incorporated M-MCM-41 (M = Ce, Mo, and/or V) mesoporous materials were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The synthesized mesoporous materials were characterized by the XRD, BET, TPR and EPR techniques. The extent of mesoporous structural ordering was evident from the XRD pattern of M-MCM-41. The catalytic properties of the metal containing MCM-41 catalysts were evaluated for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane in a fixed-bed micro-reactor. The results showed higher activity in case of V-MCM-41 catalyst as compared to that of Mo-MCM-41 catalysts over a temperature range of 500–600 °C at atmospheric pressure. Cerium containing MCM-41 catalyst showed high selectivity (78%) for butadiene at moderate conversion of about 4%. The major products include ethylene, propylene and butanes. Propane conversion of about 20% with corresponding propylene selectivity of around 30% was obtained at 575 °C over V-MCM-41 catalyst. A small amount of H2 besides COx was also produced during catalytic runs under the conditions of catalyst performance evaluation.
Authors:Omar M. Khalaf, Mosad A. Ghareeb, Amal M. Saad, Hassan M. F. Madkour, Ahmed K. El-Ziaty, and Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz
Different solvent extracts of the aerial parts of Senna italica (Mill.) were investigated for their chemical constituents and biological activities. Moreover, bio-guided fractionation led to isolation and identification of six compounds, namely: physcion (1), emodin (2), 2-methoxy-emodin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 1-hydroxy-2-acetyl-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-8-methoxynaphthalene (tinnevellin) (4), quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (rutin) (5), and 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene (6). The chemical structures of these compounds were established via 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts as well as compound 3 were evaluated for their anticancer activity against tumor cell lines. The tested extracts showed a moderate to weak activity, while compound 3 showed a moderate activity against human liver cancer (Hep G2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines with IC50 values of 57.5 and 42.3 μg/mL, respectively. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with different strengths, i.e., ethyl acetate exhibited antimicrobial activity against seven test microbes while n-butanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against all tested microbes. This is the first report for the isolation of compound 3 as a new compound from S. italica growing in Egypt.
Authors:Sajith Vellappally, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah, Amer Alqahtani, M. H. N. Dalati, Sukumaran Anil, Aftab Ahmed Khan, and P. R. Harikrishna Varma
Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora. They represent frequent pathogens of infective endocarditis (IE), and it is assumed that in most of the cases oral streptococci are acquired via mucosa layer of oral cavity. Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated from IE as it accounts for 20%–30% of all cases. Vancomycin has been the most reliable therapeutic agent against infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of S. aureus species in dental caries specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus to four antibiotics namely vancomycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, and daptomycin was performed. Detection of vancomycin resistance was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. Among the tested 150 strains, 98 were MRSA and of that 54 were vancomycin sensitive and 27 were resistant. All 98 MRSA strains were positive for mecA and 36 yielded pvl, whereas 13 carried vanA and only 2 were positive for vanB. Majority of the isolates showed sensitivity toward daptomycin and linezolid. Strains of S. aureus exhibiting decreased susceptibility to different antibiotics like vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid severely compromise the therapeutic alternatives and require a considerable amount of time, public awareness, and integrative health-care strategies to prevent the emergence of resistance to these compounds.