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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: N. Niu, Y.X. Bai, S. Liu, Q.D. Zhu, Y.L. Song, S.C. Ma, L.J. Ma, X.L. Wang, G.S. Zhang, and J.W. Wang

Studies of the pollen abortion mechanism in thermo-sensitive male sterile lines may provide a strong foundation for breeding hybrid wheat and establishing a theoretical basis for marker-assisted selection. To investigate the cause of pollen abortion in Bainong thermo – sensitive male sterile (BNS) lines, we analyzed the properties of pollen grains, changes in the tapetum and microspores in different anther developmental stages, and the distribution and deposition of nutrient substances in microspores. We found that tapetum degraded in the early uninucleate stage in sterile BNS (S-BNS), which was earlier than that of fertile BNS (F-BNS) tapetum. Large amounts of insoluble polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins were deposited until the trinucleate pollen stage in the nutritive cells in F-BNS. At the binucleate stage, the vacuoles disappeared and pollen inclusion increased gradually. At the trinucleate stage, these nutrients would help pollen grains mature and participate in fertilization normally. Therefore, early degradation of the tapetum, which inhibits normal microspore development, and the limited content of nutrient substances in pollen may be the main factors responsible for male sterility in BNS lines.

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Abstract

Background

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included in the DSM-5 as a provisional diagnosis. Whether IGD should be regarded as a disorder and, if so, how it should be defined and thresholded have generated considerable debate.

Methods

In the current study, machine learning was used, based on regional and interregional brain features. Resting-state data from 374 subjects (including 148 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥5 and 93 IGD subjects with DSM-5 scores ≥6) were collected, and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) was employed to classify IGD from recreational game use (RGU) subjects based on regional brain features (ReHo) and communication between brain regions (functional connectivity; FC). Permutation tests were used to assess classifier performance.

Results

The results demonstrated that when using DSM-5 scores ≥5 as the inclusion criteria for IGD subjects, MVPA could not differentiate IGD subjects from RGU, whether based on ReHo or FC features or by using different templates. MVPA could differentiate IGD subjects from RGU better than expected by chance when using DSM-5 scores ≥6 with both ReHo and FC features. The brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network and the cerebellum exhibited high discriminative power during classification.

Discussion

The current findings challenge the current IGD diagnostic criteria thresholding proposed in the DSM-5, suggesting that more stringent criteria may be needed for diagnosing IGD. The findings suggest that brain regions involved in the default mode network and executive control network relate importantly to the core criteria for IGD.

Open access

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks., is a major disease that causes substantial losses to wheat production worldwide. The utilization of effective resistance genes in wheat cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. To study the inheritance of all-stage resistance in spring wheat cultivars Louise, WA008016, Express, Solano, Alturas and Zak from the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States, the six cultivars were crossed with the Chinese susceptible variety Taichung 29. Single-spore isolates of CYR32 and CYR33, the predominant Chinese races of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, were used to evaluate F1, F2 and BC1 generations for stripe rust resistance under controlled greenhouse conditions. Genetic analysis determined that Louise had one dominant resistance gene to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrLou. WA008016 had two dominant and one recessive resistance genes to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrWA1, YrWA2 and YrWA3, respectively. Express had a single recessive gene that conferred resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrExp3. The two independent dominant genes in Solano conferring resistance to CYR32 were temporarily designated as YrSol1 and YrSol2. Alturas had two recessive genes for resistance to CYR32, temporarily designated as YrAlt1 and YrAlt2. Zak has one dominant gene for resistance to CYR33, temporarily designated as YrZak1. These six cultivars can be important resistance sources in Chinese wheat stripe rust resistance breeding.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: T. Saito, J. Wang, T. Kitazawa, M. Takahashi, M. Takeda, M. Nakada, T. Nakamoto, N. Masaki, T. Yamashita, and M. Saeki

Abstract  

Four types of neptunyl(VI) hydroxides have been synthesized by chemical oxidation of Np(IV) instead of ozone oxidation of Np(V) which caused the partial oxidation to the heptavalent state. NpO2(OH)2 (I) and NpO2(OH)2·H2O (orthorhombic type) (II) have been obtained by adding pyridine to the solution at 373K and 343K, respectively. NpO2(OH)2·H2O (hexagonal type) (III) and NpO2(OH)2·xH2yNH3 (x+y=1) (IV) have been prepared by using LiOH and NH4OH, respectively. The four materials have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, thermogravimetric analysis and237Np Mössbauer spectra. The237Np Mössbauer spectrum of (I) measured first time as anhydrous neptunyl(VI) hydroxide (δ=−46.2 mm/s,e 2 qQ=193 mm/s and η=0.16 at 4.8K) has more distinct five-line Mössbauer pattern than those of (II), (III) and (IV). The Mössbauer spectra for (II), (III) and (IV) are slightly different from each other. The structural information has been obtained from these data.

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Summary  

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are one of most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. The nuclear analytical methods (ENAA, SRXRF and XRF) were employed to study the effect of iodine deficiency on the metal ion changes during the stage of brain development, combined with biochemical methods. The results show that the distributions of iron, copper and zinc varied to different extent in different brain regions and subcellular fractions of the ID rat brains. These distributional changes of trace elements might be associated with the brain damage caused by the iodine deficiency.

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Abstract  

The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B.L. Béres, N.Z. Lupwayi, F.J. Larney, B. Ellert, E.G. Smith, T.K. Turkington, D. Pageau, K. Semagn, and Z. Wang

Research indicates that not all crops respond similarly to cropping diversity and the response of triticale (× Triticosecale ssp.) has not been documented. We investigated the effects of rotational diversity on cereals in cropping sequences with canola (Brassica napus L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.), or an intercrop (triticale:field pea). Six crop rotations were established consisting of two, 2-yr low diversity rotations (LDR) (continuous triticale (T-T_LDR) and triticale-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (T-W_LDR)); three, 2-yr moderate diversity rotations (MDR) (triticale-field pea (T-P_MDR), triticale-canola (T-C_MDR), and a triticale: field pea intercrop (T- in P_MDR)); and one, 3-yr high diversity rotation (HDR) (canola-triticale-field pea (C-T-P_HDR)). The study was established in Lethbridge, Alberta (irrigated and rainfed); Swift Current (rainfed) and Canora (rainfed), Saskatchewan, Canada; and carried out from 2008 to 2014. Triticale grain yield for the 3-yr HDR was superior over the LDR rotations and the MDR triticale-field pea system; however, results were similar for triticale-canola, and removal of canola from the system caused a yield drag in triticale. Triticale biomass was superior for the 3-yr HDR. Moreover, along with improved triticale grain yield, the 3-yr HDR provided greater yield stability across environments. High rotational diversity (C-T-P_HDR) resulted in the highest soil microbial community and soil carbon concentration, whereas continuous triticale provided the lowest. Net economic returns were also superior for C-T-P_HDR ($670 ha–1) and the lowest for T-W_LDR ($458 ha–1). Overall, triticale responded positively to increased rotational diversity and displayed greater stability with the inclusion of field pea, leading to improved profitability and sustainability of the system.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Yao, F. Wang, L. Tian, Y. Zhou, H. Chen, K. Chen, N. Gai, R. Zhuang, T. Maskow, B. Ceccanti, and G. Zaray

Abstract  

Using TAM III multi-channel calorimetry combined with direct microorganism counting (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) under laboratory conditions, we determined the microbial population count, resistance and activity toward cadmium (Cd(II)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) toxicity in soil. The thermokinetic parameters, which can represent soil microbial activity, were calculated from power-time curves of soil microbial activity obtained by microcalorimetric measurement. Simultaneous application of the two methods showed that growth rate constant (k), peak-heat output power (P max) and the number of living microorganisms decreased with increasing concentration of Cd and Cr. The accumulation of Cr on E. coli was conducted by HPLC-ICP-MS. Cr6+ accumulation by Escherichia coli was increased steadily with increasing Cr6+ concentration. The results revealed that the change in some thermo-kinetic parameters could have good corresponding relationship with metal accumulation. Our work also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, more sensitive, on-line and in vitro method that can be easily performed to study the toxicity of different species of heavy metals on microorganism compared to other biological methods, and can combine with other analytic methods to study the interaction mechanism between environmental toxicants and microbes.

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Compound danshen preparations (CDPs) are used clinically for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. By using the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) method, sixteen compounds (danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuicaldehyde, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, notoginsenoside R1, salvianolic acid B, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA were quantified on an ACQUITY ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) using a gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.30 mL/min in 30 min at 30°C, which was also validated by UPLC-diode array detection (DAD) and UPLC-electrospray ionization multistage/mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for assuring the feasibility and accuracy. Tested by robustness experiment under slightly changeable conditions, the stability of relative correction factor (RCF) proved to be stable, with RSDs below 5.69%, except for notoginsenoside R1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) 7.83%. This reliable and convenient QAMS method resolved the problem of standard substance insufficiency and improved the quality assessment of preparations consisting of complex compounds with different chemical structures, such as CDPs.

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