Authors:R. Queiroz, Luiza Pires, Ruth de Souza, J. Zamian, A. de Souza, G. da Rocha Filho, and C. da Costa
Hydrotalcite was synthesised by co-precipitation method, calcined and characterized by XRD, BET, IR and TG/DTA/DTG analyses
and tested as solid base catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, achieving a methyl ester content
of 99.5%. The thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite calcined occurred in four mass loss steps at 28, 105, 203 and 400 °C.
The hydrotalcite was recovered and through a simple evaluation by TG/DTA/DTG techniques it was found that at 500 °C is the
temperature, where the organic matter should be eliminated from the catalyst. This study shows the importance of thermal analysis
in the evaluation of the recovery temperature of hydrotalcite.
Authors:M. S. Blonski, C. R. Appoloni, P. S. Parreira, P. H. A. Arag?o, and V. F. Nascimento Filho
Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was employed to study the effects of the fumagina disease through the
elementary chemical composition of leaves. The experimental setup consisted of a Mo X-ray tube (Kµ=17.44 keV) with Zr filter and a Si(Li) detector. The measurements were performed with infected and healthy leaves of citric
plants. The elements Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. For all the elements of interest the measured detection limit
was at the order of mg . g-1.
Authors:M. L. S. De Melo, N. A. Santos, R. Rosenhaim, A. G. Souza, and P. F. Athayde Filho
Biodiesel has the advantage of being renewable and clean and for these reasons has been studied recently both academically and in industry. Research in this area is focused on developing new synthetic routes to obtain a purer product or to find new alternative sources of food to replace conventional oils. Papaya biodiesel is obtained from oily residues with a fatty acid composition similar to olive oil. It is generally discarded by the ton, considering that Brazil is the world’s largest producer of papaya with an annual output of 1,811 million tons, productivity of 52 t/hectare and domestic consumption at 86.5%. This study was designed by means of thermal analysis (TG, DSC, P-DSC, and MT-DSC), to verify the possibility of achieving high quality biodiesel, with oxidative stability and flow properties previously indicated by composition analysis of its fatty esters, physical–chemical properties (including oxidative stability) using classical methodology, recommended by ASTM D 6756.
Authors:Luiz K. C. de Souza, Juliana J. R. Pardauil, José R. Zamian, Geraldo N. da Rocha Filho, and Carlos E. F. da Costa
Al-modified MCM-41, La-modified MCM-41, and Ce-modified MCM-41 mesoporous materials were prepared with different molar ratios (Si/M = 10; 25; 50; 100 and 200) at room temperature. The materials were characterized using XRD, BET–BJH, and TG–DTA. The XRD showed four peaks, due to the ordered hexagonal array of parallel silica tubes, which could be indexed as (100), (110), (200), and (210), assuming a hexagonal unit cell. The surface area decreased as the concentration of the metal incorporated in the material increased. The thermal stability of the materials was around 650 °C. The CeO2 phase made the mass transfer process more difficult, hindering Hofmann degradation and favoring oxidation.
Authors:Carla Sayago, Vanessa Camargo, F. Barbosa, Cláudia Gularte, Geovana Pereira, Silvia Miotto, V. Cechinel Filho, R. Luiz Puntel, V. Folmer, and A. Mendez
Bauhinia species are known to have hypoglycemiant and antioxidant activities. Here, hydro-ethanolic leaf extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and Bauhinia variegata, collected in a Pampa biome region of Brazil, were investigated to characterize their chromatographic profile, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activity (TBARS and DPH assays). The extracts were obtained from dried and fresh leaves. The total flavonoid content was assessed by spectrophotometric determination, and the results ranged between 572.08 and 1,102.99 μg mL−1. Moreover, flavonoids were more predominant in B. variegata than in B. forficata subsp. pruinosa. HPLC analysis detected a complex profile of phenolic compounds, being the flavonoid kaempferitrin founded B. forficata subsp. pruinosa; in addition, other kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were present. In vitro antioxidant assays demonstrated a different behavior depending on the species, leaf treatment and extract concentration. In general, B. variegata extracts obtained from fresh material presented higher antioxidant potential, which can be attributed to the predominance of flavonoids in their chemical composition.
Authors:R. A. Candeia, F. S. M. Sinfrônio, T. C. Bicudo, N. Queiroz, A. K. D. Barros Filho, L. E. B. Soledade, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, and A. G. Souza
Biodiesel oxidation is a complex process widely influenced by the chemical composition of the biofuel and storage conditions. Several oxidation products can be formed from these processes, depending on type and amount of the unsaturated fatty acid esters. In this work, fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters were obtained by base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and physicochemically characterized according to standards from ASTM, EN, and ABNT. The thermal and oxidative stabilities of biodiesel samples were investigated during the storage process by pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and by viscosity measurements. Absolute viscosities of biodiesels after accelerated aging were also determined. The viscosity increased as the aging temperature and time were raised. The results showed that oxidation induction can occur during storage, decreasing the biodiesel stability. PDSC analysis showed that during storage under climate simulation the values of high-pressure oxidative induction times (HPOIT) were reduced for both FAEE and FAME.
Authors:L. M. Jesus, P. R. C. Abreu, Marcela C. Almeida, Lavínia C. Brito, Sheila F. Soares, D. E. De Souza, Luciana C. Bernardo, A. S. Fonseca, and M. Bernardo-Filho
Since ancient times propolis has been employed for many human purposes because to their favourable properties. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures. Some authors have reported that synthetic or natural drugs can interfere with the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the action of a propolis extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Samples of whole blood of male Wistar rats were incubated in sequence with an aqueous propolis extract at different concentrations, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Blood samples were centrifuged to separate plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were also separated after precipitation in trichloroacetic acid solution and centrifugation. The radioactivity was counted and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) for each fraction was calculated. The data obtained showed that the aqueous propolis extract used decreased significantly the %ATI in plasma proteins at higher concentration studied. Results suggest that at high concentration the constituents of this extract could alter the labeling of plasma proteins competing with same binding sites of the 99mTc on the plasma proteins or acting as antioxidant compounds.