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Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid determination of functional genes in wheat plants. ERECTA genes are reported to regulate stomatal pattern of plants, and manipulation of TaERECTA (a homologue of ERECTA in bread wheat) is a potential route for investigating stomatal development. Here, the leucine-rich repeat domains (LRRs) and transmembrane domains of TaERECTA were selected to gain BSMV:ER-LR and BSMV:ER-TM constructs, respectively, targeting TaERECTA for silencing in wheat cultivars ‘Bobwhite’ and ‘Cadenza’, to identify the function of TaERECTA on stomatal patterns. The results showed that reduced expression of TaERECTA caused an increased stomatal and epidermal cell density by average 13.5% and 3.3%, respectively, due to the significantly reduced size of leaf epidermal and stomatal cells, and this led to an increase in stomatal conductance. These suggest that modulation of TaERECTA offers further opportunities in stomatal engineering for the adaptation of photosynthesis in wheat.

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Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.

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Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are one of most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. The nuclear analytical methods (ENAA, SRXRF and XRF) were employed to study the effect of iodine deficiency on the metal ion changes during the stage of brain development, combined with biochemical methods. The results show that the distributions of iron, copper and zinc varied to different extent in different brain regions and subcellular fractions of the ID rat brains. These distributional changes of trace elements might be associated with the brain damage caused by the iodine deficiency.

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Abstract  

Using isothermal microcalorimetry, the growth power-time curves of three strains of Tetrahymena were determined at 28C. Their Euclidean distances and cluster analysis diagram were obtained by using two thermokinetic parameters (r and Q log), which showed that T. thermophila BF1 and T. thermophila BF5 had a closer relationship. Compared with the single molecular biomarker (ITS1) method, microcalorimetry wasmaybe a simpler, more sensitive andmore economic technique in the phylogenetic studies of Tetrahymena species.

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Prorocentrum donghaiense caused large-scale red tides off Chinese coast in recent years. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was carried out for this dinoflagellate in order to identify the genes involved in its proliferation and death. A cDNA library was constructed for P. donghaiense at late exponential growth phase, and 308 groups of EST were generated, which include 36 contigs and 272 singletons. Among 22 groups showed homologies with known genes, 2 matched significantly with caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Caspase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are 2 key proteins involved in programmed cell death. Their identification evidenced preliminarily the induction of PCD in aging P. donghaiense. The identified included also calmodulin and protein phosphatase, two proteins involved in diverse cell processes including PCD by binding to or modifying others.

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Purple pericarp is an interesting and useful trait in Triticum aestivum, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype remains unclear. The allelic variation in the MYB transcriptors is associated with the phenotype of pigmented organs in many plants. In this study, a MYB transcription factor gene, TaMYB3, was isolated using homology-based cloning and a differentially expressed gene mining approach, to verify the function of the MYB transcriptor in the purple pericarp. The coding sequence of TaMYB3 in cultivar Gy115 was the same as that in cultivar Opata. TaMYB3 was localized to FL0.62–0.95 on chromosome 4BL. The TaMYB3 protein contains DNA-binding and transcription-activation domains, and clustered on a phylogenetic tree with the MYB proteins that regulates anthocyanin and proanthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB3 localized in the nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat protoplasts after it was transiently expressed with PEG transformation. TaMYB3 induced anthocyanin synthesis in the pericarp cells of Opata in the dark in collaboration with the basic helix–loop–helix protein ZmR, which is also the function of ZmC1. However, TaMYB3 alone did not induce anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp cells of the white grain wheat cultivar Opata in the light after bombardment, whereas the single protein ZmR did. Light increased the expression of TaMYB3 in the pericarp of Gy115 and Opata, but only induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grains of Gy115. Our results extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the purple pericarp trait in T. aestivum.

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A reborn interest has occurred during the last decade toward wheat landraces for broadening genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars. The investigation of molecular traits within and between existing landraces of wheat can help scientists to develop appropriate strategies for their efficient maintenance and exploitation. The present study dealt with the gliadin characterization of forty-seven wheat landraces collected from wheat mainly planted areas of China, each of which was represented by a sample of at least 43 individuals. Twelve accessions selected on the basis of gliadin analysis were investigated further using 21 SSR markers. The results proved that landraces of wheat are a mixture of variable individuals genetically distinguishable from each other. Twelve of the analyzed 47 accessions were observed to be homogeneous, while 35 (74.5%) of them were heterogeneous in their gliadin composition. In total, 122 gliadin pattern were observed. On average, 10.1% (Gst) of the total variation arose from differentiation among regions, and 89.9% was attributed to within-region variation. Furthermore, nineteen of the 21 SSR markers were polymorphic across all the populations. The total number of the amplified DNA products was 110, with a mean of 6.11 alleles per locus. The values of genetic diversity within each landrace population varied from 0.006 to 0.351. Implications for the management of this valuable genetic resource are discussed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: X. X. Han, X. M. Jiang, Z. G. Cui, J. W. Yan, and J. G. Liu

Abstract

For obtaining high shale oil yield as well as treating shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way in a new comprehensive utilization system of oil shale, a series of fundamental experiments have been conducted for exploring the effects of retorting factors on shale oil yield and shale char characteristics. Based on these previous studies, in this article, combustion experiments of shale chars obtained under various retorting conditions were performed with a Q5000IR thermogravimetric analyzer and a Leitz II-A heatable stage microscope and the effects of retorting factors were discussed on the combustion characteristics of shale char. Among four studied retorting parameters, retorting temperature and residence time exert very significant influence on the combustion characteristics of shale char. Either elevating the retorting temperature from 430 to 520 °C or lengthening the residence time at a low retorting temperature will largely decrease residual organic matters within shale char, resulting in decreasing mass loss in the low-temperature stage of combustion process of shale char, an elevation of ignition temperature and a shift of ignition mechanism from homogeneous to heterogeneous. One set of retorting condition was also recommended as a reference for designing the comprehensive utilization system of oil shale studied in this work: retort temperature of 460–490 °C, residence time of 20–40 min, particle size of <3 mm, and low heating rate of <10 °C/min.

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Abstract

Thermal decomposition kinetics of magnesite were investigated using non-isothermal TG-DSC technique at heating rate (β) of 15, 20, 25, 35, and 40 K min−1. The method combined Friedman equation and Kissinger equation was applied to calculate the E and lgA values. A new multiple rate iso-temperature method was used to determine the magnesite thermal decomposition mechanism function, based on the assumption of a series of mechanism functions. The mechanism corresponding to this value of F(a), which with high correlation coefficient (r-squared value) of linear regression analysis and the slope was equal to −1.000, was selected. And the Malek method was also used to further study the magnesite decomposition kinetics. The research results showed that the decomposition of magnesite was controlled by three-dimension diffusion; mechanism function was the anti-Jander equation, the apparent activation energy (E), and the pre-exponential term (A) were 156.12 kJ mol−1 and 105.61 s−1, respectively. The kinetic equation was

ea
and the calculated results were in accordance with the experiment.

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Summary Samples of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) were chemically reduced using 2-propanol under reflux (82°C) for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 24 h intervals. XRD analysis showed that the ?-MnO2 structure was preserved although the lattice dimensions were observed to increase with increasing degree of reduction to accommodate the intercalation of protons. The exception was the 24 h reduced sample which contained two phases; ? -MnO2 and ? -MnOOH. Three regions of decomposition in the range of 50 to 1000°C were observed using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and were accounted for as water removal below 390°C, reduction of MnO2 to Mn2O3 between 400 and 600°C, and Mn2O3 to Mn3O4 between 600 and 1000°C. Again the exception proved to be the 24 h reduced sample which was observed to decompose predominantly in one step between 400 and 600°C directly to Mn3O4.

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