Neuroscience is one of the most active research fields in many countries including China, an economically and scientifically
emerging country, where a rapid development has been occurred since the 1970s. In this study, a MEDLINE-based bibliometric
analysis of Chinese international output in neuroscience was conducted for the period from 1984 through 2001. An attempt was
made to identify the pattern of the growth and to obtain some quantitative indicators over the literature studied in order
to review at the developing steps of neuroscience in China during the period.
Authors:Ming-Wei Wang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Ying-Jian Zhang, and Clifton Shen
The need of reliable production of N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB), a versatile 18F-labeled prosthetic group for protein labeling, has increased dramatically due to the easy availability of proteins or their
engineered derivatives for targeted molecular imaging. A module-assisted radiosynthesis of [18F]SFB was developed using a three-step, one-pot procedure and ethyl 4-(trimethylammonium)benzoate triflate (1) as the starting material. The radiochemical transformations were carried out in a general-purpose, custom-made module and
streamlined by an anhydrous deprotection strategy using t-BuOK/DMSO. After HPLC-purification, [18F]SFB was synthesized in radiochemical yields of 20–30% (n > 10, not decay-corrected) and excellent radiochemical and chemical purities (>98%). The total synthesis and purification
time required is ~90 min. Using the purified [18F]SFB, three 18F-labeled proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), chicken egg albumin (CEA) and transferrin, were synthesized in yields of 61.0–79.5%.
The 18F-Annexin V for apoptosis imaging was also produced in 5% radiolabeling yield and >95% radiochemical purity.
Authors:X. Meng, M. Wei, D. Wang, X. Qu, K. Zhang, N. Zhang, and Xinjian Li
Renal injury is reported to have a high mortality rate. Additionally, there are several limitations to current conventional treatments that are used to manage it. This study evaluated the protective effect of hesperidin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced kidney injury in rats. Renal injury was induced by generating I/R in kidney tissues. Rats were then treated with hesperidin at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously 1 day after surgery for a period of 14 days. The effect of hesperidin on renal function, serum mediators of inflammation, and levels of oxidative stress in renal tissues were observed in rat kidney tissues after I/R-induced kidney injury. Moreover, protein expression and mRNA expression in kidney tissues were determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was done for histopathological observation of kidney tissues. The data suggest that the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine in the serum of hesperidin-treated rats were lower than in the I/R group. Treatment with hesperidin also ameliorated the altered level of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in I/R-induced renal-injured rats. The expression of p-IκBα, caspase-3, NF-κB p65, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein, TLR-4 mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly reduced in the renal tissues of hesperidin-treated rats. Histopathological findings also revealed that treatment with hesperidin attenuated the renal injury in I/R kidney-injured rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that hesperidin protects against renal injury induced by I/R by involving TLR-4/NF-κB/iNOS signaling.
Authors:B. Hu, Y. Song, L. Wang, Q. Zhang, J. Li, K. Wei, Y. Chen, and L. Zhang
Electronic stopping power of 19F in Ni, Pd and Gd was measured and compared to Mstar and SRIM calculation as well as experimental results published in literature.
It turns out that the present electronic stopping power agrees reasonably well with them.
The atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected in Shanghai, China. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES)
spectra of Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn were measured. The XANES spectroscopy was used as a fingerprint to compare with that of reference
materials to obtain speciation information. The oxidation state of these elements and main chemical components in the samples
were described using the method. The results show that in our samples the oxidation state of Cr is trivalent, Mn mainly exists
in the divalent state, Cu also exists in the divalent state, and Zn mainly exists in the zinc sulfate. For the XANES spectra
of samples with different particle size and from different sampling site, we did not find their obvious differences. When
we compared the XANES spectra of our samples with those of standard reference material SRM 1648, we found that they are similar
in regards to the determined elements. The elemental concentrations in the samples were determined by proton induced X-ray
emission (PIXE). The difference of elemental concentrations was observed in the different samples.
Authors:Xiaoyan Liu, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Jingliang Cheng, Chunli Wei, Lianmei Zhang, and Junjiang Fu
Generation of the stable cell lines is a highly efficient tool in functional studies of certain genes or proteins, where the particular genes or proteins are inducibly expressed. The KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1) is an important transcription regulatory protein, which is investigated in several molecular biological studies. In this study, we have aimed to generate a stable cell line for inducing KAP1 expression. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1 was constructed at first, which was then transfected into Flp-In™T-REx™-HEK293 cells to establish an inducible pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1-HEK293 cell line. The Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of KAP1 is over-expressed in the established stable cell line by doxycycline induction, both dose and time dependently. Thus we have successfully established stable pcDNA5/FRT/TO-KAP1-HEK293 cell line, which can express KAP1 inducibly. This inducible cell line might be very useful for KAP1 functional studies.
Authors:Zhanzhong Zhao, Jun Ding, Qun Liu, Ming Wang, Jinshu Yu, and Wei Zhang
The immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine expressing the surface protein NcSRS2 of
was studied in BALB/c mice. The NcSRS2-encoding DNA was obtained by PCR amplification of the NcSRS2 ORF gene from the p43 plasmid encoding the
surface protein NcSRS2, ligated to the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1/Zeo(+) and propagated in
DH5α to produce the
NcSRS2 DNA vaccine. BALB/c mice were immunised by two intramuscular injections of the DNA vaccine with or without complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Serum antibody titres and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, and splenocyte proliferation and cytokine expression were measured after immunisation. The DNA vaccine induced T-cell-mediated immunity as shown by significantly increased NO concentrations, cytokine gene (IL-2 and IFN-γ) expression, and NcSRS2 protein-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in mice immunised with the DNA vaccine. The vaccine also induced weak humoral immunity. The immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine was slightly enhanced by CFA. The immune response was specific to NcSRS2. No immune response was observed in mice immunised with the pcDNA3.1/Zeo(+) vector alone.
Authors:Haiqun Cao, Yongde Yue, Rimao Hua, Feng Tang, Rong Zhang, Wei Fan, Haiyan Chen, and Yong Hua
A simple, rapid, and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for analysis of residues of imidacloprid, fenitrothion, and parathion in Chinese cabbage. The sample was extracted by sonication in an ultrasonic water bath with acetone-petroleum ether, 5:3 (
), and the extract was directly applied, as bands, to glass-backed silica gel 60F
HPTLC plates. The plates were developed with hexane-acetone, 7 + 3 (
), in an unsaturated glass twin-trough Camag chamber. Evaluation of the developed HPTLC plates was performed densitometrically with a Camag TLC Scanner 3 controlled by an external PC running Wincats software (Version 1.1.2). The results indicated that the detection limits of imidacloprid (
= 0.10), fenitrothion (
= 0.59), and parathion (
= 0.70) were 5.0 × 10
g, 2.0 × 10
g, 1.0 × 10
g, respectively. Recoveries of the pesticides from Chinese cabbage by use of this analytical method were 80.04–85.22%, and
were 4.18–13.15%. The precision and accuracy of the method were generally fit for analysis of pesticide residues in Chinese cabbage.
Let R be an IF ring, or be a ring such that each right R-module has a monomorphic flat envelope and the class of flat modules is coresolving. We firstly give a characterization of copure projective and cotorsion modules by lifting and extension diagrams, which implies that the classes of copure projective and cotorsion modules have some balanced properties. Then, a relative right derived functor is introduced to investigate copure projective and cotorsion dimensions of modules. As applications, some new characterizations of QF rings, perfect rings and noetherian rings are given.
Authors:Xiao Wei Zhao, Guo Yu Zhang, Lin Yang, Jia Xi Qiang, and Zi Qiang Chen
Li-ion batteries with LiFePO4/C composites are difficult to be charged at low temperatures. In order to improve the low temperature performance of LiFePO4/C power batteries, the charge–discharge characteristics were studied at different temperatures, and a new charging mode under low temperature was proposed. In the new charging mode, the batteries were excited by current pulses with the charge rates between 0.75 C and 2 C, while the discharge rates between 3 and 4 C before the conventional charging (CC–CV). Results showed that the surface temperature of Li-ion battery ascended to 3 °C at the end of pulse cycling when the environment temperature was −10 °C. Comparing with the conventional charging, the whole charge time was cut by 36 min (23.4%) and the capacity was 7.1% more at the same discharge rate, respectively.