Authors:B. Liu, P. S. Thomas, R. P. Williams, and S. W. Donne
Summary Samples of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) were chemically reduced using 2-propanol under reflux (82°C) for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 24 h intervals. XRD analysis showed that the ?-MnO2 structure was preserved although the lattice dimensions were observed to increase with increasing degree of reduction to accommodate the intercalation of protons. The exception was the 24 h reduced sample which contained two phases; ? -MnO2 and ? -MnOOH. Three regions of decomposition in the range of 50 to 1000°C were observed using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and were accounted for as water removal below 390°C, reduction of MnO2 to Mn2O3 between 400 and 600°C, and Mn2O3 to Mn3O4 between 600 and 1000°C. Again the exception proved to be the 24 h reduced sample which was observed to decompose predominantly in one step between 400 and 600°C directly to Mn3O4.
Authors:Liu Yuren, Lu Yanxin, Xie Yali, Wang Yonghai, Du Youling, Tan Jin, Meng Bonian, and R. Seymour
This paper introduces the principles, instrumentation, implementation, and industrial applications of an on-line thermal neutron prompt-gamma element analysis system (using a252Cf neutron source, Am–Be neutron source, or neutron generator). The energy resolution of the system at the H prompt-gamma full-energy photopeak (2.22325 MeV) is 3.6 keV. The concentration measurement error of Al2O3, FeO3, CaO, and SiO2 is ±0.3%, ±0.1%, ±0.4%, and ±0.4%, respectively. The system has been tested on-site at both the Shandong and the Zhengzhou Aluminium Works. Our preliminary on-site measurements confirm that the stability, reliability, measurement range, and accuracy of the system can meet the requirements of the aluminium production process. Facilitation of this measurement at aluminium plants is expected to reduce plant costs by over 3 million dollars annually through reduced energy consumption, more rapid qualification of pulps being mixed during the production process, and in reduced labor costs.
Authors:X. Z. Lan, H. R. Pei, X. Yan, and W. B. Liu
Phase behavior of dodecane–tetradecane (n-C12H26–C14H30, n-C12–C14) binary system in bulk and confined in SBA-15 (pore diameters 8 nm; 15.9 nm) has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. The bulk system possesses some special phases relating to the rotator phase in normal alkanes. Dodecane–tetradecane mixtures confined in SBA-15 (8 nm) are a system miscible both in solid and liquid states with a phase diagram of a smooth curve. Dodecane–tetradecane system confined in SBA-15 (15.9 nm) exhibits not only solid–liquid (s–l) in all compositions but solid–solid transition in mole fractions of tetradecane 0.1–0.6, which forms a phase diagram of “loop line” shape. Melting temperatures of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8 nm) are lower than those of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (15.9 nm) in all mole fractions. The evolution of the phase diagram of n-C12–C14 confined in 8 nm, 15.9 nm pore sizes of SBA-15 and in bulk, respectively, shows a dramatic effect of confinement on phase behavior of normal alkane mixtures. The s–l phase boundary lines of n-C12–C14/SBA-15 (8, 15.9 nm) are fitted as being , where D is a polynomial ∑ aixi, i = 1, 2,···, n (A = C14, B = C12).
Authors:J.-J. Zhang, R.-F. Wang, J.-B. Li, H.-M. Liu, and H.-F. Yang
The thermal decomposition of Eu2(BA)6(bipy)2 (BA=C2H5N–2, benzoate; bipy=C10H8N2, 2,2'-bipyridine)and its kinetics were studied under the non-isothermal condition by TG-DTG, IR and SEM methods. The kinetic
parameters were obtained from analysis of the TG-DTG curves by the Achar method, the Madhusudanan-Krishnan-Ninan (MKN) method,
the Ozawa method and the Kissinger method. The most probable mechanism function was suggested by comparing the kinetic parameters.
The kinetic equation for the first stage can be expressed as: dα/dt=Aexp(–E/RT)3(1–α)2/3.
Authors:R. Weginwar, B. Liu, S. Ambe, S. Enomoto, H. Maeda, and F. Ambe
The solvent extraction of Zr and Hf was studied using 444-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (TTA) from a multitracer solution containing carrier-free radioisotopes of Zr, Hf, and other elements. The multitracer was prepared from Au foil irradiated with high-energy heavy-ion beams. Effects of HCl and HNO3 concentrations and organic solvent on the extraction and coextraction of other radionuclides have been studied. It was found that decalin (decahydronaphthalene) was the best solvent among 14 solvents studied and the optimum aqueous phase was 2 mol·dm–3 HCl or HNO3. About 2–10% of Sr, Rb, Sc and Nb were coextracted with Zr and Hf. The reversed phase extraction of Zr and Hf was also developed by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution at pH range of 8.5–10.
Authors:R. Weginwar, Y. Kobayashi, S. Ambe, B. Liu, S. Enomoto, and F. Ambe
Separation of Au(III) and various carrier-free radionuclides by solvent extraction was investigated using an Au target irradiated by an energetic heavy-ion beam. Percentage extraction of Au(III) and coextraction of the radionuclides were determined with varying parameters such as kinds of solvent, molarity of HCl or pH, and Au concentration. Under the conditions where Au(III) was effectively extracted, namely extraction with ethyl acetate or isobutyl methyl ketone from 3 mol·dm–3 HCl, carrier-free radionuclides of many elements were found to be more or less coextracted. Coextraction of radionuclides of some elements was found to increase with an increase in the concentration of Au(III). This finding is ascribed to the formation of strong association of the complex of these elements with chloroauric acid. In order to avoid serious loss of these elements by the extraction, lowering of the Au(III) concentration or the use of a masking agent such as sodium citrate is necessary. Gold(III) was shown to be effectively back extracted with a 0.1 mol·dm–3 aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. Thus, a radiochemical procedure has been established for preparing a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer with carrier form from an Au target irradiated with a heavy-ion beam. Both tracers are now used individually for chemical and biological experiments.
Authors:X. W. Liu, Y. L. Feng, H. R. Li, P. Zhang, and P. Wang
Thermal decomposition kinetics of magnesite were investigated using non-isothermal TG-DSC technique at heating rate (β) of 15, 20, 25, 35, and 40 K min−1. The method combined Friedman equation and Kissinger equation was applied to calculate the E and lgA values. A new multiple rate iso-temperature method was used to determine the magnesite thermal decomposition mechanism function, based on the assumption of a series of mechanism functions. The mechanism corresponding to this value of F(a), which with high correlation coefficient (r-squared value) of linear regression analysis and the slope was equal to −1.000, was selected. And the Malek method was also used to further study the magnesite decomposition kinetics. The research results showed that the decomposition of magnesite was controlled by three-dimension diffusion; mechanism function was the anti-Jander equation, the apparent activation energy (E), and the pre-exponential term (A) were 156.12 kJ mol−1 and 105.61 s−1, respectively. The kinetic equation was
and the calculated results were in accordance with the experiment.
Authors:R. Holloway, J. Carilli, S. Faller, Chung-King Liu, and P. Kuroda
Radiochemical measurements of the concentrations of thorium and uranium isotopes were carried out for a total of 10 samples of hot springs, mineral springs and lakes collected in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. The uranium to thorium ratios in these water samples were found to be generally much greater than those in soils and in rainwater. The apparent230Th ages calculated from the230Th/232Th and234U/238 ratios for most of these water samples were less than 100 years.
Authors:R. Wang, A. Chau, F. Liu, H. Cheng, P. Nar, X. Chen, and Q. Wu
The aim of this paper is to consider using effective natural minerals in studying the retardation and migration of radium under the influence of groundwater in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository. The properties of adsorbing radium by minerals are studied by adopting the static and dynamic adsorption method. Preliminary experimental results give confidence in the validity of using Maifanshih and barite to adsorb radium in water and to serve as effective retarding materials in radioactive waste repositories, their Kd values being 3815 and 2955, respectively. The study on a certain number of conditions of adsorbing radium by the promissing material Maifanshih is reported for the first time. The mechanism of radium adsorption has been discussed and modeling of migration of radium in the minerals has been presented to establish a rational basis for the longterm prediction required for safety assessment of underground disposal of radioactive waste.
Authors:C. Liu, S. Li, X. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Wang, R. Li, C. Xin, B. Li, L. Jiang, and C. Jia
The migration of 99Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess was investigated in-situ with a tracer method. Quartz containing 3H (HTO) and 99Tc (99TcO4-) was introduced into the bottom of an experimental pit which was then backfilled at the field test site. Then core soil samples were taken and cut vertically into 1 cm long slices. The slice samples were analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques in the laboratory. The results indicate that the migration pattern of 99Tc was quite similar to that of 3H and the vertical diffusion coefficients of 99Tc and 3H were calculated as (4.7±0.4).10-2 cm2/d and (7.8±0.4).10-2 cm2/d, respectively.