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Abstract  

The purified bentonite parent clay, fraction ≤; 2 mm of montmorillonite type, has been pillared by various polyhydroxy cations, Al, AlFe and AlCu, using conventional pillaring methods. The thermal behavior of PILCs was investigated by combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA, TG) and low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (LTNA). Thermal stability of Al-, AlFe- and AlCu-PILC samples was estimated after isothermal pretreatment in static air on the temperatures 300, 500, 600 and 900C. Crucial structural changes were not registered up to 600C, but the fine changes in interlayer surrounding and porous/microporous structure being obvious at lower temperatures, depending on the nature of the second pillaring ion. AlFe-PILC showed higher thermal stability of the texture, the AlCu-PILC having lower values and lower thermal stability concerning both overall texture and micropore surface and volume. Poorer thermal stability of AlCu-PILC sample at higher temperatures was confirmed, the presence of Cu in the system contributing to complete destruction of aluminum silicate structure, by 'extracting' aluminum in stabile spinel form.

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Abstract

Numerous studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy exerts harmful effects on fetal brain development. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the early physical and neurobehavioral development of newborn rats. Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body smoke exposure for 2 × 40 min daily from the day of mating until day of delivery. For this treatment, a manual closed-chamber smoking system and 4 research cigarettes per occasion were used. After delivery the offspring were tested daily for somatic growth, maturation of facial characteristics and neurobehavioral development until three weeks of age. Motor coordination tests were performed at 3 and 4 weeks of age. We found that prenatal cigarette smoke exposure did not alter weight gain or motor coordination. Critical physical reflexes indicative of neurobehavioral development (eyelid reflex, ear unfolding) appeared significantly later in pups prenatally exposed to smoke as compared to the control group. Prenatal smoke exposure also resulted in a delayed appearance of reflexes indicating neural maturity, including hind limb grasping and forelimb placing reflexes. In conclusion, clinically relevant prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke results in slightly altered neurobehavioral development in rat pups. These findings suggest that chronic exposure of pregnant mothers to cigarette smoke (including passive smoking) results in persisting alterations in the developing brain, which may have long-lasting consequences supporting the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DoHAD).

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The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

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Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a new disease in Hungary, was recognized in a swine herd located in Southeast Hungary, during the early winter of 1999. The first clinical signs of paleness, anaemia, and leanness appeared immediately after weaning, at the age of 40-50 days. Pustules were frequently observed on the skin of the trunk, and signs of necrotic dermatitis were also visible. A syndrome of poor growth and wasting was characteristic of the affected pigs. A porcine circovirus (PCV), the suspected causative agent, was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing data and restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis of the PCR products suggested that the virus belonged to the PCV-II group where all the causative agents of PMWS are also grouped.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Viruses caused severe yield losses of field cucumber in Hungary last years. Field surveys have been carried out on field cucumber to evaluate virus infection in the region of Gyor-Moson-Sopron county. Virus infection was determined on the basis of symptoms, biotest and with DAS-ELISA serological method for the presence of 15 viruses. The virus vector aphid flight was monitored by Moericke yellow water pan. On the basis of field surveys 100% virus infection has been observed in cucum­ber fields. Virus symptoms were various, depending on varieties, environ­men­tal factors, viruses and strains. Out of the viruses investigated only three [Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) (DTL serotype); Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) and Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus (WMV-2)] have been occurred on cucumber samples. Biological tests confirm­ed the results of DAS-ELISA. There was much difference, regarding the frequency of viruses. ZYMV was dominant in 1998, while CMV was dominant in 1999. The proportion of the complex infection was very high. Till now, besides CMV other viruses cannot be detected from weeds in cucumber ecosystems. The peak of aphid flight was in the middle of June and later a secondary peak was observed at the beginning of July, which coincided with the appearance of the first virus symptoms. Regarding, that cucumber production occurs in fields at the same place year by year, soil borne virus vectors may play important role in virus infection. To reduce virus infection we can suggest using of light summer oils, which prevents virus transmission by aphids. It is concluded that team work of virologists, pathologists, growers, technologists and the breeders is necessary to solve virus problems of field cucumber in Hungary.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Bánvölgyi, T. Vatai, Zs. Molnár, I. Kiss, Ž. Knez, Gy. Vatai, and M. Škerget

Two novel technologies were applied in order to investigate concentration and formulation of anthocyanins for potential use in food industry. Integrated membrane process technology was applied for concentrating elderberry juice. In the first step, the juice was clarified by microfiltration, followed by a pre-concentration step with reverse osmosis. Finally, the juice was concentrated to the end concentration of 56 °Brix by osmotic distillation. The elderberry juice concentrate was formulated in a powderous form by a high-pressure process — Particles from Gas Saturated Solution (PGSS™) — using supercritical CO2. The applied carrier material was palm fat. The products with different anthocyanin-carrier ratios were measured for their colour properties (lightness, hue angle, and saturation). Colour stability was monitored for prolonged storage at different conditions (light/dark and ambient temperature/ refrigerator). The obtained powderous anthocyanin-palm fat products showed good colour stability, which gives good bases for potential applications in the future.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: V. Pozderka, A. Hidas, M. Duleba, and Zs. Trábert
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The suitability of benthic diatoms in the biological monitoring program of the water quality of Lake Velence was tested. Diatom indices were calculated with the aid of the software Omnidia based on reed periphyton samples collected between 1988 and 1990, and 1999 to 2004. We have pointed out which indices are appropriate for indicating the water quality changes of Lake Velence. The correlation between the indices IBD, IPS, IDG, and the total nitrogen, total phosphorus content of the water and chlorophyll-a content of the periphyton was calculated. Significant negative correlation was found between the indices and the total phosphorus content of the water. Moreover, we concluded that the chlorophyll-a content of the periphyton related to surface area can also provide information about the water quality. Based on these results the index IBD seems to be the most suitable for the water quality analysis of Lake Velence. Recommendations are provided here concerning the ecological status classification of Lake Velence based on epiphytic diatoms; unaccounted questions and future assignments are also outlined in connection with this.

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In the present study, heat treatment was carried out in five different phenological phases, from the first node detectable (DEV31) growth stage to 20 days after flowering, on four wheat genotypes with very different adaptation strategies. They were grown in a controlled environment in a phytotron chamber and exposed to a night temperature of 20°C and a day temperature of either 30°C, at DEV31, or 35°C at all the later developmental phases, for an interval of 14 days. Plant height, leaf number, number of tillers, grain number and grain weight per main and side spikes, TKW per main and side spikes, length of the main and side spikes, and spikelet number per main and side spikes were recorded. High temperature enhanced the stem growth intensity, plant height and tiller number. In contrast, the length of side spikes, spikelet no./side spike, grain no./main and side spike, grain weight/main and side spike and TKW/main and side spike were significantly decreased. The stress response depended strongly on the developmental phase in which the heat stress was applied. Fleischmann 481 and Soissons showed definitely contrasting tendencies both in grain number and grain weight. In the case of the Plainsman V and Mv Magma pair, the higher heat stress tolerance of Magma compared to Plainsman V was evident also from the grain number and weight of the main spike at each developmental phase.

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