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Abstract  

The purpose of this study was to further characterize the altered metabolism spondylolisthesis that promotes disease progression. Degenerative human cartilage (intervertebral disc, facet joint and vertebral end-plate) was obtained during 15 posterior lumbar spine interbody fusion procedures performed at the University of Szeged. The thermal properties of samples were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (Mettler-Toledo DSC 821e). Greatest change in the enthalpy was observed in the intervertebral disc samples: −1600.78 J g−1. Denaturation caused by heating in the normal human hyaline cartilage needed −1493.31 J g−1 energy. Characterization of the altered metabolism that promotes disease progression should lead to future treatment options.

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Abstract  

During recent years, knowledge of rheumatoid arthritis has increased, and management of the disease has improved. A limited number of papers have been published before on the subject of thermal analysis of degenerative cartilage but rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been studied previously. A new protocol had to be established before the investigation. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the altered metabolism in human RA cartilage that promotes disease progression. Previously, these methods have not been used for this purpose. The use of thermal analysis could be an effective method for controlling the relationship between biomarkers and disease progression.

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This study reports on the in vivo effects of four endomorphin-2 (EM-2) derivatives (EMD1-4) containing unnatural amino acids, i.e. 2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (Achc2), para-fluorophenylalanine (pFPhe4), β-methylphenylalanine (βMePhe4) and/or 2′,6′-dimethyltyrosine (Dmt1). After induction of osteoarthritis by monosodium iodoacetate into the ankle joint of male Wistar rats, a chronic intrathecal catheter was inserted for spinal drug delivery. The mechanical threshold was assessed by a dynamic aesthesiometer. Intrathecal injection of the original EM-2 and the ligands (0.3–10 μg) caused dose-dependent antiallodynic effects. The comparison of the different substances revealed that EMD3 and EMD4 showed more prolonged antinociception than EM-2, and the effects of the highest dose of EMD4 were comparable to morphine, while EMD3 caused paralysis at this dose. The potency of the different ligands did not differ from EM-2. The results show that the derivatives of EM-2 have similar in vivo potency to the original ligand, but their effects were more prolonged suggesting that these structural modifications may play a role in the development of novel endomorphin analogues with increased therapeutic potential.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: V. Losó, A. Tóth, A. Gere, J. Heszberger, G. Székely, Z. Kókai, and L. Sipos

According to international studies the consumer preference of apple varieties is defined by the flavour and texture and the consumers’ opinion about the heavily sour character, the mushy texture and the barely chewable peel is negative. However, the preference level and nutritional values of the apple juices are determined by the variety used, the maturity level and the processing of the fruits. In our study we conducted the external and internal preference mapping of two apple juices with 100% fruit content according to the industrial practice. It propounded several questions about the method of the preference mapping which were the following: product specific training of the assessors, panel performance monitoring, number of samples, representativity, scale use and marking, reasons of the singular matrix, segmentation method, segmentation criterion, power of the paired post-hoc analysis, number of the principal components (PC’s), etc. Finding the answers of the questions above it is possible to establish a good preference mapping practice.

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When applied in funnel traps, the known three-component floral lure of Cetonia a. aurata and Potosia cuprea attracts large numbers of beetles. Further increasing the attractive power of these traps offers the opportunity to develop a more potent mass-trapping tool that directly reduces local scarab populations and, hence, fruit damage. The current study was initiated by the observation of adult beetles aggregating and feeding in large numbers on ripening fruit, accompanied by the presence of fermentation volatiles detectable by the human nose. Addition of apple pieces to the ternary C. aurata aurata / P. cuprea lure resulted in increased catches, but only in traps where the apple fermented as a result of beetle feeding. Volatile extracts collected from fermenting apple were subjected to GC-EAG, and bioactive peaks were identified as 1-hexanol, acetic acid, n-butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid and 3-methylphenol by GC-MS and GC peak enhancement. In preliminary field trials, a synthetic mixture of all identified compounds reduced activity of the ternary lure, indicating that some were inhibitory. As certain individual compounds or their particular combinations enhanced activity of the ternary lure only numerically, further experiments are discussed to optimize a synergistic blend of fruit fermentation and/or beetle-derived volatiles.

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Colour (L*, a*, b*, h o and chroma), β-galactosidase, polygalacturonase (PG) activity, pectin content, ultrastructure and volatile compounds were determined, in mature green and in yellow ber fruits ( Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk. cv. Umran).The L* did not, but a*, b* and h o significantly differed between mature green and yellow ber fruit. The pectin content and its solubilization (soluble pectin and neutral sugars), the activity of PG was higher in yellow ber fruits and in the outer part of fruits. Activity of β-galactosidase was higher in mature green ber fruits. The cell walls of mature green fruits were usually homogeneous, the density of the middle lamellae decreased in yellow bers, and at the same time, the structure of chloroplastids disintegrated. The aroma of yellow ber is characterized by the presence of even carbon number of ethyl esters from C4 to C14.

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Abstract

Purpose

Our aims were to evaluate the primary and clinical evisceration indications and to analyse orbital implant related complications.

Materials/methods

We included in our retrospective review all eviscerations between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Primary evisceration indications were classified into six groups: trauma, surgical diseases, infections or inflammations, systemic diseases, tumours and unclassifiable diseases. Clinical immediate evisceration indications were also classified into six groups: painful blind eye due to glaucoma, atrophia/phthisis bulbi, endophthalmitis, cosmetic reasons, acute trauma and expulsive bleeding.

Results

Evisceration was performed in 46 eyes of 46 patients (54.3% males, age 43.0 ± 18.6 years). The most common primary evisceration indications were trauma (37%), surgical diseases (34.8%), infection or inflammation (10.9%), systemic diseases (6.5%), tumours (8.7%) and unclassifiable diseases (2.2%). Painful blind eye due to glaucoma (34.8%) was the most common clinical indication for evisceration, followed by atrophia/phthisis bulbi (26.1%), endophthalmitis (17.4%), cosmetic reasons (13.0%), acute trauma (6.5%) and expulsive bleeding (2.2%). After evisceration, 91.3% of the patients received orbital implant and during 26.8±28.9 months follow-up implant related complications were found in 14.3% of the cases, including implant extrusion (4.8%), partial wound dehiscence (4.8%), implant exposure (2.4%) and orbital inflammation (2.4%).

Conclusion

Painful blind eye and atrophia/phthisis bulbi due to ocular trauma and surgical diseases represent the most common indications for ocular evisceration. If malignant intraocular tumours can be excluded, evisceration surgery combined with a silicon-based orbital implant is a safe and effective procedure.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

Our aims were to evaluate the primary and clinical evisceration indications and to analyse orbital implant related complications.

Materials/methods

We included in our retrospective review all eviscerations between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Primary evisceration indications were classified into six groups: trauma, surgical diseases, infections or inflammations, systemic diseases, tumours and unclassifiable diseases. Clinical immediate evisceration indications were also classified into six groups: painful blind eye due to glaucoma, atrophia/phthisis bulbi, endophthalmitis, cosmetic reasons, acute trauma and expulsive bleeding.

Results

Evisceration was performed in 46 eyes of 46 patients (54.3% males, age 43.0 ± 18.6 years). The most common primary evisceration indications were trauma (37%), surgical diseases (34.8%), infection or inflammation (10.9%), systemic diseases (6.5%), tumours (8.7%) and unclassifiable diseases (2.2%). Painful blind eye due to glaucoma (34.8%) was the most common clinical indication for evisceration, followed by atrophia/phthisis bulbi (26.1%), endophthalmitis (17.4%), cosmetic reasons (13.0%), acute trauma (6.5%) and expulsive bleeding (2.2%). After evisceration, 91.3% of the patients received orbital implant and during 26.8±28.9 months follow-up implant related complications were found in 14.3% of the cases, including implant extrusion (4.8%), partial wound dehiscence (4.8%), implant exposure (2.4%) and orbital inflammation (2.4%).

Conclusion

Painful blind eye and atrophia/phthisis bulbi due to ocular trauma and surgical diseases represent the most common indications for ocular evisceration. If malignant intraocular tumours can be excluded, evisceration surgery combined with a silicon-based orbital implant is a safe and effective procedure.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: László Z. Reinitz, Gábor Bajzik, Rita Garamvölgyi, Bianka Benedek, Örs Petneházy, András Lassó, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, Borbála Lőrincz, and Péter Sótonyi

Despite numerous studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and its importance during hydrocephalus or myelography, no reliable values exist about its overall volume in dogs. In this study, our aim was to measure the intracranial (IC) volume of CSF in dogs and assess its possible relationship with body size and the symmetry of the lateral ventricles. We ran a 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence on the central nervous system of 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs between 3–5 years of age and 7.5–35.0 kg body weight. A validated semiautomatic segmentation protocol was implemented to segment the CSF and measure its volume. Values for the volume of the ventricular compartment were between 0.97 and 2.94 ml, with 62.1 ± 11.7% in the lateral ventricles, 17.6 ± 4.9% in the third ventricle, 4.9 ± 1.6% in the aqueductus mesencephali and 15.5 ± 6.6% in the fourth ventricle. In 11 cases a significant asymmetry was found between the lateral ventricles. The results suggest that it may be normal for a dog to have one of the lateral ventricles 1.5 times larger than the other. The correlation between body weight and CSF volume was linear, indicating that the current dosage protocols for myelography, based on a hypothetical proportional relationship with body weight, may have to be revised.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: István Hartyánszky, A. Tóth, G. Veres, B. Berta, E. Zima, Z. Szabolcs, G. Y. Acsády, B. Merkely, and F. Horkay

Abstract

Background: Although circular ventricle resection techniques are the gold standard of left ventricle restoration, these techniques can lead to suboptimal results. Postoperative systolic resection line can be inadequate, as it must be planned on a heart stopped in diastole. The impaired geometry and contractility may lead to increased short- and long-term mortality. Moreover, postoperative low cardiac output due to insufficient left ventricular volume results in a potentially unstable condition, and cannot be corrected. Our aim was to find a preoperative method to minimize risk and maximize outcome with left ventricle restoration. Methods: We have created a novel method combining surgery with modern imaging techniques to construct a preoperative 3D systolic heart model. The model was utilized to determine resection could be intraoperatively used to create the new left ventricle. Results: The computer assisted ventricle engineering technique is described step by step through a successful aneurysmectomy of a 61-year-old female patient with a complicated giant left ventricle aneurysm. Conclusions: Using this model we are able to find the optimal resection line providing excellent postoperative result, thus minimizing the risk of low cardiac output syndrome. This is the first report of our new combined approach to left ventricle restoration.

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