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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: K. Kiss, K. Márialigeti, T. Felföldi, P. Vladár, K. Szabó, and M. Puky
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Pherocon AM (PhAM) trapping and visual counting are two commonly used methods for identifying maize fields in the USA that contain a sufficient number of adult western corn rootworms (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte to cause economic root damage by larvae the following year. Therefore, the estimation of adult WCR population plays an important role in management decisions (rotation or treatment). The goals of this study were (1) to compare adult WCR data obtained by PhAM trapping to “whole plant count” data in different maize developmental stages, (2) to determine the period in which the data obtained by both methods show the highest correlation, (3) to determine the regression curve between capture of WCR on PhAM as an independent variable and number of WCR observed by visual plant count, and (4) to determine if the “whole plant count” method can serve as a substitution for PhAM trapping under European conditions. Three samplings were conducted in 2006 in 38 fields in Croatia and one sampling was conducted in 22 fields in Serbia. Sampling in Croatia was conducted when maize plants were in the R 65-69, R 73-77 and R 79-85 developmental stages according to BBCH identification keys of maize. Sampling in Serbia was conducted when maize plants reached R 69-71 developmental stages. Three to six PhAM traps were placed in each 0.5 to 4 ha maize field seven days prior to sampling. Visual counts were conducted on the same day as trap inspections. Adult WCR densities in the PhAM traps were correlated to adult densities on whole plants. Statistical analyses comparing the results of PhAM trapping with the visual “whole plant count” method showed that there is a significant medium to strong correlation between them. Correlation coefficients varied depending on the data used in the analysis. When sampling was conducted in the first half of August (maize developmental stages R 69-77), the correlation coefficients were the highest (r(R 6971) = 0.8677 and r(R 73-77) = 0.706). Coefficients of determination were the highest as well [r2 (R 69-71) = 0.753; r2 (R 73-77) = 0.4984]. Therefore, the most appropriate period for sampling is during the first half of August. At that time, the majority of the maize plants were between the R 69 and R 77 developmental stages. According to the results, 0.5–1 visually determined adult/plant corresponds to 40 adults/trap/week. This shows that both methods are equally useful for estimating the population densities of WCR in the Central European region.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Krisztina Szabadfi, P. Kiss, D. Reglodi, E. Fekete, A. Tamas, B. Danyadi, T. Atlasz, and R. Gabriel

Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) is a corticotrop releasing factor paralog peptide with many physiological functions and it has widespread distribution. There are some data on the cytoprotective effects of Ucn 2, but less is known about its neuro- and retinoprotective actions. We have previously shown that Ucn 2 is protective in ischemia-induced retinal degeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective potential of Ucn 2 in monosodium-glutamate (MSG)-induced retinal degeneration by routine histology and to investigate cell-type specific effects by immunohistochemistry. Rat pups received MSG applied on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9 and Ucn 2 was injected intravitreally into one eye. Retinas were processed for histology and immunocytochemistry after 3 weeks. Immunolabeling was determined for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vesicular glutamate transporter 1, protein kinase Cα, calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin. Retinal tissue from animals treated with MSG showed severe degeneration compared to normal retinas, but intravitreal Ucn 2 treatment resulted in a retained retinal structure both at histological and neurochemical levels: distinct inner retinal layers and rescued inner retinal cells (different types of amacrine and rod bipolar cells) could be observed. These findings support the neuroprotective function of Ucn 2 in MSG-induced retinal degeneration.

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A real-time RT-PCR assay utilising light upon extension fluorogenic primer (LUX RT-PCR) was developed for the rapid and efficient detection of avian influenza viruses (AIV). The assay detected each of the AIV isolates tested (16/16) and gave negative results with heterologous pathogens (17/17). The detection limit of the assay proved to be 10-0.5 EID50/0.2 ml and 101.5 EID50/0.2 ml in allantoic fluid of virus-infected embryonated chicken eggs and in spiked chicken faeces samples, respectively. Based on its specificity, sensitivity and relative simplicity, the LUX RT-PCR assay provides a novel, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for avian influenza surveillance and monitoring programs.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Bujdosó, F. Budán, T. Varjas, L. Szabó, A. Csejtei, J. Iványi, A. Huszár, I. Arany, I. Kiss, and I. Ember

Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) could contribute to tissue regeneration through the ability to form somatic cells. CD34 positivity is regarded as stem cell (SC) or endothelial progenitor cell (EP) marker. According to literature natural substances could increase the release of CD34 positive (CD34+) cells. In this study we investigated the basic rate of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood of CBA/Ca (H-2k haplotype) and BALB/c inbred mice by flow cytometry. Then we treated the mice with a new mixture of medical herbs, and we measured the level of CD34+ cells at 1, 3, 6, 18 and 24 hours after the treatment. A biological rhythm in the untreated blood was detected. Moreover the used herbal compounds increased the number of CD34+ cells.Although SC number is individually and highly variable in peripheral blood, the fluctuation could be used as a biomarker like the other compounds of peripheral blood in different aspects in risk assessment.

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As DNA methylation patterns are inherited (‘epigenetic memory’) gsh I transgenic poplar ( Populus × canescens ) clones (11 ggs and 6 Lgl ) were treated with the DNA demethylating drug DHAC (5,6-dihydro-5′-azacytidine hydrochloride) at 10 −4 M for 7 days in order to study acquired plant molecular defense mechanisms in novel plant sources. In this study, the response of relative gene expression levels of transgene gsh I and poplar gene gsh 1 to DHAC treatment were analyzed by qRT-PCR ( q uantitative r everse t ranscriptase PCR). High expression levels of transgene gsh I were observed in the 6 Lgl clone (13.5-fold increase) compared to 11 ggs (1.0) sample. The expression level doubled (1.8-fold increase) in the DHAC-treated 6 Lgl samples but not in the 11 ggs clone (0.4-fold). Contrary to this, the relative copy number of transgene gsh I in the 6 Lgl clone was found to be 60% less (1.0) than in the 11 ggs sample (1.6). Relative expression level of endogenous poplar gene gsh 1 showed significantly higher responsiveness to DHAC-induced demethylation than the transgene gsh I with the highest expression level in the untransformed WT poplar (19.7-fold increase) compared to transformed clones of 6 Lgl (8.7-fold increase) and 11 ggs (2.5-fold increase), respectively. Competition in the reactivation capacity between transgene gsh I and poplar gsh 1 of 6 Lgl clone was also observed as the relative gene expression level of transgene gsh I increased from a high relative expression level (13.5) up by about twofold (1.8 times) rate (to 23.7) compared to poplar gsh 1 gene that increased by an 8.7 increment from a lower level (1.6 rel. expression) to 13.9.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: G. Molnár, T. Belgya, L. Dabolczi, B. Fazekas, Zs. Révay, Á. Veres, I. Bikit, Z. Kiss, and J. Östör

Abstract  

Prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) is an important complementary technique to conventional instrumental activation analysis that can be successfully used in a number of cases when INAA is not applicable. Therefore, a PGAA facility has been constructed at the recently refurbished and upgraded Budapest Research Reactor. It occupies the end position of a new curved themal guide of 30 m length and 2.5×10 cm2 cross section which provides a clean beam of low energy neutrons. The sophisticated HPGe-BGO -ray spectrometer system can be operated in Compton-suppression and pair-spectrometer modes simultaneously. The octal splitting of the main BGO improves efficient pair mode operation when coincidences between pairs of opposite segments and the HPGe detector are required separately. Gamma-gamma coincidence measurements will also be possible when the new multiparameter data acquisition system is completed. One of the main tasks at the new facility will be the accumulation of new spectroscopic data for detector calibration and standardisation, as well as for the construction of a more accurate prompt -ray library for the chemical elements. Various applications are planned, such as the determination of hydrogen in fullerenes and of toxic trace elements in environmental samples.

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It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules – known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers – are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

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In Hungary, ECG is a keystone of routine athletic screening. Its signifcance is based on simplicity, quickness and high informative value as well as the fact that appearance of pathological ECG signs can precede the formation of structural heart diseases. During screening of healthy athletes, we studied the incidence of athletic ECG changes and pathological ECG abnormalities. Methods: We performed detailed analysis of 12-lead ECG recordings of asymptomatic elite, non-elite and master athletes and controls. Results: 227 athletes (male: 180, age: 27.2±8.7 years) and 89 controls (male: 57, age: 28.1±6.8 years) were examined. Benign ECG signs: sinus bradycardia, early repolarization and isolated Voltage criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy were common and more often in athletes compared to controls. Potentially pathological ECG signs: ST- (6.6% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.05) and T-wave (15.0% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.05) changes and signs of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (5.3% vs. 0%, p < 0.05) occurred more frequently in athletes compared to controls. Conclusions: Signs of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy and repolarization abnormalities are more often in athletes. No structural heart disease could be verifed in the background of the disorders. However, athletes having pathological ECG should be kept under tight cardiology control. Exact defnition and widespread knowledge of pathological ECG changes is essential in early recognition of high risk athletes.

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Aims

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters.

Methods

Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line.

Results

Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender.

Conclusion

There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

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