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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Li Li, Wei Wang, Xiangshang Xu, Hui Wang, Shujie Liao, Wei Li, Weina Zhang, Dan Liu, Bo Cao, Shixuan Wang, Keng Shen, and Ding Ma

Abstract  

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy for the management of malignant diseases. It has been proven to be quite effective in the treatment of numerous tumors, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metastatic prostate cancer, melanoma, thyroid cancer, colon cancer and so on. The RIT currently used is mainly based on monoclonal antibodies to recognize target antigens. As antibodies are large molecules, this method of RIT has some limitations in in vivo use, such as the immunogenicity, the high costs and low efficiency of production. Aptamer is discovered and selected by SELEX technology. As specific recognizers and binders, aptamers and antibodies have such a close similarity as to be interchangeable to some extent. But, aptamers have many advantages over antibodies: higher affinity and specificity, smaller molecular weight, more easily synthesized and modified, more rapidly penetrating into tumors, higher tumor-to-blood distribution ratio and more easily to be cleared. In addition, since aptamer has almost no immunogenicity in vivo, it can be repeatedly administered. Thus, we believe that aptamer-based RIT will be a feasible and promising way to treat human cancers, and it might display better results in cancer treatment than antibody-based RIT. In conclusion, aptamer-based RIT is hopeful to become a key therapeutics in cancer radiotherapy in the near future.

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Abstract  

The compound 3-{[4-(4-[18F]fluorophenyl)methyl]piperazin-1-yl}-methyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine ([18F]3), which is an analogue of L-745,870 binding D4

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: L. Wei, S.G. Bai, X.J. Hou, J.M. Li, B. Zhang, W.J. Chen, D.C. Liu, B.L. Liu, and H.G. Zhang

Among 20 awnless Tibetan wheat cultivars analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the migration rate of an HMW-GS in XM001584 and XM001593, named 1BX23*. was shown to be slightly faster than 1Bx6. and slower than Bx7. Its nucleotide sequence was isolated based on homology clones. In a phylogenetic tree of 1Bx genes, 1Bx23* was apparently clustered with 1Bx23. Compared with 1Bx23. eight single nucleotide replacements caused four single amino acid replacements in 1Bx23*. The deletion of “G” at base pair 1463 and insertion of “A” at 1509 bps induced a 42-nucleotide frame shift. “GQRQQAGQWQRPGQ” was replaced by “DKGNRQDNGNDRDK”. The new segment cannot be found in other HMW-GSs, and it is very similar to a segment found in collagen. Moreover, an 18-nucleotide deletion made 1Bx23* six amino acids shorter than 1Bx23. The cultivar XM001593 had 28 chromosomes, which signifies that it was tetraploid wheat, and that the new HMW-GS 1Bx23* cannot be used directly for breeding in common wheat.

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Red coleoptile is an easily observed trait in Triticum aestivum and can provide some protection against stress. Here, TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1, homologous to TaMYB-D1, which controls red coleoptile formation in the common wheat cultivar ‘Gy115’, was isolated from eight T. aestivum and 34 T. urartu cultivars. The genome sequence of TaMYB-A1 was 867 bp with an intron of 93 bp, which was similar to the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in T. aestivum but different from other MYB transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 had an integrated DNA-binding domain of 102 amino acids and a transcriptional domain of 42 amino acids, which was responsible for regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 was assigned to the same branch as the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in a phylogenetic tree. A transient expression analysis showed that TaMYB-A1 induced ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells to synthesize anthocyanin with the help of ZmR. A non-functional allele of TaMYB-a1 existed in common wheat cultivars containing rc-a1. One single nucleotide was deleted 715 bp after the start codon in TaMYB-a1 compared with TaMYB-A1. The deletion caused a frame shift mutation, destroyed the DNA transcription activator domain, and resulted in TaMYB-a1 losing its ability to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells. Those cultivars with functional TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1 have red coleoptiles. The isolation of TaMYB-A1 should aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms of coleoptile traits in T. aestivum.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Hai-Qing Zhang, Bang-Fa Ni, Wei-Zhi Tian, Gui-Ying Zhang, Dong-Hui Huang, Cun-Xiong Liu, Cai-Jin Xiao, Peng Nie, and Hong-Chao Sun

Abstract  

An expression of γ-ray efficiency for large samples is proposed based on numerical integration of efficiencies over compositional point sources. The widely used expression on radial variation of HPGe efficiency for point source originally proposed by Noguchi et al. (Int J Appl Radiat Isot 32:17–22, 1980 [<cite>1</cite>]) was amended and a new expression was proposed. A comparison between the two expressions indicates that the newly proposed expression brings about an obvious improvement, and Self-absorption correction for a voluminous source is also given out by using the EID principle. The functional relationship between HPGe efficiency for γ-rays from a point source and the spatial position of the source was established. The results of this study can be applied in order to determine γ attenuation effects of unknown bulky samples with various shapes and materials.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Hai-Qing Zhang, Bang-Fa Ni, Wei-Zhi Tian, Gui-Ying Zhang, Dong-Hui Huang, Cun-Xiong Liu, Cai-Jin Xiao, Hong-Chao Sun, and Chang-Jun Zhao

Abstract  

Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements, by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined (i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported. Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated.

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Abstract

Thermotropic phase behaviors of paeonol-encapsulated liposomes containing stigmasterol or cholesterol have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. We compared the thermotropic phase behavior of pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, sterol/DPPC liposomes, and paeonol/sterol/DPPC liposomes increasing the ratio of paeonol to sterol from 0 to 1, by analyzing the calorimetric parameters of main phase transition of liposomes including phase transition temperature (onset temperature and peak temperature) and phase transition cooperativity. The results showed that paeonol could incorporate into the hydrophobic region of DPPC, thus, decrease phase transition temperature of DPPC. Though stigmasterol interacts with DPPC less favorably than cholesterol, thermotropic phase behavior of paeonol/cholesterol/DPPC liposomes and that of paeonol/stigmasterol/DPPC liposomes are very similar. A phase separation occurred when the molar ratio of paeonol to sterol reached 1:1 in paeonol-encapsulated liposomes, where a paeonol-rich domain coexisted with a sterol-rich domain. The packing order of acyl chains of DPPC in sterol-rich domain is a little higher than that in paeonol-rich domain.

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Background and aims

This large-scale study aimed to test (a) associations of problematic Internet use (PIU) and sleep disturbance with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and (b) whether sleep disturbance mediates the association between PIU and suicidal behavior.

Methods

Data were drawn from the 2017 National School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 20,895 students’ questionnaires were qualified for analysis. The Young’s Internet Addiction Test was used to assess PIU, and level of sleep disturbance was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multilevel logistic regression models and path models were utilized in analyses.

Results

Of the total sample, 2,864 (13.7%) reported having suicidal ideation, and 537 (2.6%) reported having suicide attempts. After adjusting for control variables and sleep disturbance, PIU was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03−1.04) and suicide attempts (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02−1.04). Findings of the path models showed that the standardized indirect effects of PIU on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = 0.092, 95% CI = 0.082−0.102) and on suicide attempts (standardized β estimate = 0.082, 95% CI = 0.068−0.096) through sleep disturbance were significant. Conversely, sleep disturbance significantly mediated the association of suicidal behavior on PIU.

Discussion and conclusions

There may be a complex transactional association between PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior. The estimates of the mediator role of sleep disturbance provide evidence for the current understanding of the mechanism of the association between PIU and suicidal behavior. Possible concomitant treatment services for PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior were recommended.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a very serious disease in wheat and barley production area. FHB epidemics cause yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. Understanding the infection mechanism of F. graminearum plays an important role for the disease control. In present study, green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged were infected to wheat and barley varieties by single floret injection and screened via GFP signal. Results showed similar infection pattern of F. graminearum on both wheat and barley. Pathogen geminated in the inoculated spikelets, grew on the top of ovary or between lemma and palea, and extended towards and through rachis to the adjacent spikelets to infect the whole spike. When a spike of cultivar with FHB resistance was inoculated by F. graminearum , only the injected spikelet showed symptom at 6 days past inoculation (dpi). GFP signals indicated that F. graminearum colonized only in the inoculated spikelet and stop at the compact tissue of rachilla at 6 dpi. On the contrary, the diseased spikelets were up to 5 at 6 dpi in the spike of cultivars susceptible to FHB. F. graminearum extended through compact tissue to rachis and infected to the adjacent spikelets by spreading upward and downward to adjacent florets inter- and intra-cellularly in vascular bundles and cortical tissue of the rachis.

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Abstract

Toddalia asiatica (Linn) Lam (T. asiatica) as a traditional Miao medicine was investigated to find rational alternative medicinal parts for T. asiatica root bark and its antitumor chemical constituents by quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and multivariate statistical analysis. A bivariate correlation analysis method based on microscopic characteristics and content of chemical constituents was established for the first time, there were some regular discoveries between powder microscopic characteristics and common chromatographic peaks of T. asiatica through quantitative pharmacognostic microscopy, cork cells, calcium oxalate square crystal, brown clump, starch granule and phloem fiber, as powder microscopic characteristics may be placed where the main chemical constitutes were enriched. Scores plot of principal component analysis (PCA) and dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) showed that 18 T. asiatica samples were distinguished correctly, clustered clearly into two main groups as follows: S01∼S03 (root bark) and S07∼S09 (stem bark) in cluster 1, S04∼S06 and S10∼S18 in cluster 2. Nineteen common peaks were obtained in HPLC fingerprint of T. asiatica, loadings plot of PCA indicated seven compounds played important roles in different part of samples (P10 > P08 > P07 > P14 > P16 > P17 > P19), peaks 04, 06, 07, 08, 10 were identified as hesperidin, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, toddalolactone, isopimpinlline and pimpinellin. MTT assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of different medicinal parts of T. asiatica on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, all parts of T. asiatica had different inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell lines, root and stem barks of T. asiatica showed the best inhibitory activity. The relationship between chemical constituents and the inhibitions on MCF-7 cell had been established, significant antitumor constituents of T. asiatica were identified by correlation analysis, the order of the antitumor effect of the main compounds was P07 (toddalolactone) > P16 > P06 (4-methoxycinnamic acid), P11 > P18 > P10 (pimpinellin) > P08 (isopimpinellin) > P01 > P19 > P14 > P04 (hesperidin) > P17, which were antitumor chemical constituents of T. asiatica root bark. T. asiatica stem bark was the most rational alternative medicinal part for T. asiatica root bark.

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