Cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), a kind of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl), which has a special binding capability to rapid dividing cells and proliferating tissue, especially tumors, has been modified and labeled by 99mTc. The optimal labeling condition was determined, and the biodistribution of 99mTc-DTPA-b-CNCbl both in normal mice and TA2 mice bearing MA891 mammary tumors were studied. 99mTc-DTPA-b-CNCbl showed low uptake and rapid clearance in nontarget tissues, and renal excretion. About 40% of uptake at 1 hour remained in the tumor at 12 hours p.i. The satisfying ratio of T/NT was acquired at 6 hours p.i.
Authors:Y. Chen, X. Li, F. Chen, Q. Zhu, and J. Luo
A rapid, simple, and practical high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of norephedrine (NME), norpseudoephedrine (NMP), ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylephedrine (ME) in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) which contained Ephedrae Herba (Ephedra). This analysis could be accomplished within 12.5 min with an Alltima Phenyl Column by isocratic elution using a mixture of KH2PO4 (20 mM)-acetonitrile (96:4, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.6 mL min−1 and a wavelength of 210 nm. This method was successfully applied to quantify ephedra alkaloids in both Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction and Ephedra decoction. The concentration of total ephedra alkaloids (4.62 mg mL−1) in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction was much lower than that (7.10 mg mL−1) in Ephedra decoction. Furthermore, the concentration of NME, NMP, E, PE, and ME was significantly lower in Ma-xing-gan-shi decoction than that in Ephedra decoction, respectively. The method was easily acceptable and would be popular with most analytical laboratories.
The migration of 237Np in an undisturbed Chinese loess column was investigated by direct γ-ray method. The column was taken from a field test site and installed in a laboratory simulation hall. Radionuclide 237Np in the form of neptunium nitrate, mixed with quartz, was introduced into the column and covered with loess. Artificial
rainfall was applied to the column for about 3 years and, the counting rates of 237Np in the column from 56 to 616 days at different vertical positions were detected with a γ-ray detection system. Based on the counting rates of 237Np in the simulation column at different vertical positions and the distance from the source layer, the relationship of the
mass center of 237Np in the column at different experimental periods to the experimental time was established, Cm = 0.36 log(t)-2.75. Here Cm is the mass center of 237Np in the column, cm, and t is the experimental time in days. Based on this relationship, the mass center of 237Np for the 1,073-day experiment was predicted and compared to that obtained with the final destructive method. The good agreement
between the prediction and the experimental values indicates that the direct γ-ray method could be used to predict the migration of strongly adsorbed radionuclides such as 237Np in environmental media with the help of laboratory simulation columns.
Authors:Y. Li, H. Xingen, L. Ruisen, and X. Guiying
Enthalpies of dilution of aqueous L-serine, pyridine and methylpyridine solutions and their enthalpies of mixing have been determined by a mixing-flow microcalorimeter
at 298.15 K. The data have been analyzed in terms of McMillan-Mayer formalism to fit to virial polynomials from which the
heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients, hxy, betweenL-serine and pyridine and methylpyridine isomers have been evaluated. The results obtained in the present paper are compared
with those reported in the earlier paper about glycine and L-alanine in the same organic solvent aqueous solutions, giving a global insight of the interaction mechanism between the a-amino
acids and pyridine and methylpyridine from the point of view of solute-solute interactions and substituent effects of methyl
groups introduced into the pyridine ring.
In this paper, several small-scale screening test methods were discussed on evaluating the thermal hazard of reactive substances.
Generally the sensitivities of DSC and ARC are not high enough to evaluate the thermal hazards for all reactive substance,
especially, for those of complex reactions containing a phase and/or chemical reaction mechanism change in the lower temperature
range. Using the C80, however, the reaction can easily be detected in the lower temperature range due to its high sensitivity.
Therefore, the C80 gives generally more accurate results than DSC and ARC. Data from C80 and Dewar vessel were compared and
it indicates that the Dewar vessel has also high enough sensitivity to evaluate the thermal hazard and determine the heat
flux in lower temperature range of reactive substances.
Authors:X. Li, G. Matuschek, M. Herrera, H. Wang, and A. Kettrup
TA/MS (thermal analysis coupled with mass spectrometry) was applied to the pyrolysis of Chinese coals with different ranks.
A total of 13 Chinese coals were investigated. The samples were deliberately chosen to represent the 13 types of Chinese coals
according to the Chinese coal classification system. The experiments were carried out in an argon atmosphere with a flow rate
of 150 ml min-1. The samples were heated from 40 up to 1200C with a constant heating rate of 10 k min-1. The main evolved pyrolysis products were identified through the on-line recorded mass spectra. The thermal and evolution
behavior was compared between the coals. The results showed a strong thermal and evaluation behavior dependence on the coal
rank. Different aliphatic fragments and also some aromatic substances, which are of environmental concern (BTX, PAHs), were
found to be released depending on the different types of coal.
Liquid crystalline polymer/polyamide 66 (LCP/PA66) and LCP/poly(butyl terephthalate) (LCP/PBT) blends were compounded using
a Brabender Plasticorder equipped with a mixing chamber. The LCP employed was a semi-flexible liquid crystalline copolyesteramide
based on 30 mol% of p-amino benzoic acid (ABA) and 70 mol% of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ12)
of the LCP/ PA66 and LCP/PBT blends are estimated by melting point depression from DSC measurement. The results indicate that
c12 values all are negative for LCP/PA66 and LCP/PBT blends, and when the LCP content in these blends is more than 10 mass%,
the absolute value of χ12 decreases. Thereby, we can conclude that LCP/PA66 and LCP/PBT blends are fully miscible in the molten state, the molecular
interaction between the LCP and PA66 is stronger than that between LCP and PBT. As the LCP content in LCP/PA66 and LCP/PBT
blends is more than 10 mass%, the molecular interaction between LCP and matrix polymer decreases.
The dilution enthalpies of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol in aqueous sodium chloride solution at various concentrations have been determined by isothermal microcalorimetry
at 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients over a quite large range of concentration of aqueous sodium
chloride solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept. The results show that enthalpic pairwise
interaction coefficients (h2) of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol are positive in aqueous sodium chloride solution and become more positive with increase of the concentration of
sodium chloride. The results are interpreted in terms of the different conformations of the two polyols, solute-solute and
solute-solvent interactions involved by solvent effects.
Effects of nano-metal powders (aluminum and nickel) addition on the thermooxidative degradation of binder PEG in air atmosphere
from 20 to 350°C were studied by TG/DTA and in-situ FTIR. TG/DTA results showed that the addition of nano-Al slowed down the
degradation process of PEG in the early period but accelerated the process in the late period; the addition of nano-Ni made
the PEG degradation process begin as soon as melted. The in-situ FTIR results showed that nano-Ni promoted the thermooxidative
degradation of PEG in air, and made the degradation process of PEG complete much earlier.
The decomposition kinetics of reference calcite and three ultra-fine samples with different morphologies are investigated.
The kinetic parameters and rate equation are obtained according to the methods reported in our previous studies. Compared
with the reference calcite, a considerable diminution of the activation energy Ea up to 70–80 kJ mol−1 is observed in the case of three ultra-fine samples. There are also some distinct differences concerning the activation energy
of each of the ultra-fine sample. This may have something to do with the particle morphology revealed by TEM and SEM measurements.
XRD measurements of four calcite samples show that large strain exists in the crystal lattice in the case of ultra-fine calcite
samples. This may give a reason to their abnormal decomposition behavior.