A total of 29 major and trace elements have been determined in 43 plant samples collected from the Xizang (Tibet) Plateau using INAA at a SLOWPOKE mini-reactor in order to study elemental background concentration values in Xizang plants. In this paper are reported elemental concentrations of different parts of the plants compared to average values of plants worldwide. The preliminary results suggest that nutritional, plant elements in this region are quite low indicative of a state of malnutrition, while the contents of Al, Ti, Cr and Ba are comparatively high. These findings indicate that the concentrations of most elements in the plants are mainly affected by local soil geochemical characteristics. Some variation in elemental distribution within the plants was also evident: in general, higher concentrations were found in stems compared to roots, and, differences for nutritional elements among the plant species were much greater than found for other elements.
Authors:L. Xiao, Y. Zhang, Q. Li, Q. Zhang, and K. Wang
Fingernails of pathologically diagnosed normal people, light esophageal epitheliosis patients, severe esophageal epitheliosis patients and esophageal cancer patients were irradiated and their elemental contents were determined by INAA. Multivariate statistical treatment of Ca, Cl, K. Mg, Se and Zn data shows that esophageal cancer patients are distinguishable from non-cancer patients. The accuracy computed by neural networks is greater than 80%.
Authors:H. Li, Y. Ujihira, S. Tanaka, T. Yamashita, and K. Horie
Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of PMMA, PEMA, PiPMA, PnPMA and PnBMA were performed in the temperature range between 15 and 300 K, where , and relaxational transitions occur for these polyalkylmethacrylates. The variations of free volume size and content calculated from the longest lifetime component against temperature are correlated to the results obtained by dielectric, viscoelastic and dynamic mechanical relaxation data of the polymers. The variations of free volume sizes and contents, apparent free volume fraction and size distribution of the polyalkylmethacrylates are well correlated with the rotational transitions of side chains. The location of free volumes, in which positronium annihilates can be estimated near the vicinity of alkyl groups bound to oxygen atom of side ester chains.
A separation procedure of trace platinum from large amounts of mercury and other interfering elements is described. After irradiation, the HgO target was dissolved in concentrated HCl solution. The thallium fraction was removed by solvent extraction with ether. In the aqueous phase after extraction the radioisotope of platinum produced by irradiation was precipitated as (NH4)2PtCl6 by adding a saturated solution of NH4Cl in the presence of H2PtCl6·6H2O as stable carrier. The decontamination factor of mercury, gold and thallium and the recovery of platinum in the process of separation are satisfactory.
Authors:C. Liu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, H. Teng, and Z. Wang
The concentration of radon in an underground research facility (URF) was measured by setting up 12 sampling points in the
URF and with 3 different measurement methods. All the methods were calibrated in the radon laboratory of the No. 6 Institute
of Nuclear Industry. The accumulation of radon in the URF was observed before a ventilation system was applied. The reduction
of radon concentration in the URF by 1-hour ventilation was also observed. Experimental result indicates that the concentration
of radon in the URF increased from 15 to 50 Bq·m−3 in 5 days without ventilation, and decreased to less than 10 Bq·m−3 with 1-hour ventilation. Applying the average working time of 4 hours per day of the workers in the URF, the additional effective
dose is 0.75 msv·y−1 when 1 hour ventilation is applied before entering the URF and 13 mSv·y−1 without ventilation. These figures strongly suggest that for the health of the workers, ventilation in such underground research
facilities is needed.
A simple direct labeling method was used to synthesize the iodinated ultrafine polystyrene particles. The assay of X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS) as well as Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated the formation of stable covalent bond
to aryl group of the polymer particles. The purified radioiodinated product was incubated with serum of rat, and then evaluated
by in vitro stability test. The result showed that these synthesized ultrafine polystyrene particles were unmetabolized at
2 hours post-exposure, indicating the potential useful application of this labeled polymer particles as a promising probe
in biomedical sciences.
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Radioiodination of tri-n-butylstannyl-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (TQNB) and N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (STB) was studied. STB was radiolabeled efficiently using iodogen to prepare radioactive N-succinimidyl-3- iodobenzoate (S125IB). TQNB was radioiodinated using Chloramine-T to obtain radioactive iodo-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (125IQNB). Both S125IB and 125IQNB showed good stability at room temperature in the dark.
Intact chloroplasts were isolated from mesophyll protoplasts of Brassia napus. Concentrations of 8 rare earth elements (REEs) in the chloroplasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that there were trace amounts of REEs in the chloroplasts, which corresponded to 1 atom of REEs per 2000 chlorophyll molecules. About 30% of the total REEs in the leaves are localized in the chloroplasts and the light REEs were enriched with respect to the heavy elements of the series.